2 November 2013

Arabic Roots, Patterns & Augmentative Letters 3 - ي

The ي as Augmentative Letter
The ي can be judged to be augmentative in following cases:

When the ي is accompanied by 3 or more root letters. There can be other augmentative letters in the word in addition to ي

فِعِّيل - صِدِّيق - ص د ق
 فِعِّيلَة - صِدِّيقَة - ص د ق
 فَعْلَانِيّ - نَصْرَانِيّ - ن ص ر
 فَعْلَانِيَّة - رَهْبَانِيَّة - ر ه ب
 فِعْلِين - غِسْلِين - غ س ل
 فِعْلِيَآء - كِبْرِيَآء - ك ب ر
 فِعْلِيت - عِفْرِيت - ع ف ر
 يَفْعُول - يَنْبُوع - ن ب ع
 يَفْعِيل - يَقْطِين - ق ط ن
 إِفْعِيل - إِدْرِيس - د ر س
 إِفْعِيل - إِبْلِيس - ب ل س
 فَعِيل - نَذِير - ن ذ ر
 فَعِيل - شَهِيد - ش ه د
 فَعِيلَة - خَلِيفَة - خ ل ف
 فُعَيْل - رُوَيْد - ر و د
 فِنْعِيل - خِنْزِير - خ ز ر
 فِعْمِيل - قِطْمِير - ق ط ر
 فَعْلَلِيل - زَنْجَبِيل - ز ن ج ب ل
 فَعْلَلِيل - سَلْسَبِيل - س ل س ب ل
 فَمْعَلِيل - زَمْهَرِير - ز ه ر
 يَفْعَلُ - يَجْهَلُ - ج ه ل
 يُفَعَّلُ - يُبَصَّرُ - ب ص ر
 يُفَاعِلُ - يُحَافِظُ - ح ف ظ
 يُفْعِلُ - يُقْصِرُ - ق ص ر
 يَتَفَعَّلُ - يَتَدَبَّرُ - د ب ر
 يَتَفَاعَلُ - يَتَعَارَفُ - ع ر ف
 يَسْتَفْعِلُ - يَسْتَقْدِمُ - ق د م
 مُفَيْعِل - مُصَيْطِر - س ط ر



Notes: 
1. In last example above, root is written with س while in word ص is written. This is substitution of ص for س . InshaALLAH more will be discussed in series on substitution.
2. in reduplicated roots in which a 2 letter root is repeated to make a 4 letter root, the ي is not augmentative.
فُعْفُع (فُعْلُل) - يُؤْيُؤ - ي أ ي أ
3. With only 2 other root letters, it is also root letter and not an augmentative letter.
فَعْل - بَيْت - ب ي ت
4. If the ي is accompanied by 2 root letters and a أ or م as 1st letter then usually that أ or م is judged to be augmentative while the ي is judged to be root letter.