26 July 2014

Arabic Verb Form III (3) فَاعَلَ faa'ala faa3ala

Meaning shades of Arabic Verbal Form III

Also see posts on Other Arabic Verb Forms
This post is on The Meanings of Arabic Verb Form III فَاعَلَ . Usually one or multiple (more than one) of the following meaning shades are applicable in a form III verb and applicable meaning shades may differ from verb to verb.
Last edited on : 8-August-2014 and planned to be edited and improved further.

1 (w) . When form I denotes an act that immediately affects an object (direct object or accusative), form III فَاعَلَ expresses the effort or attempt or try to perform the act (indicated in the root) upon the object, in which case the idea of reciprocity or sharing is added when the effort is necessarily or accidentally a mutual one.

Form I صَرَعَهُ indicates he threw him down, while form III صَارَعَهُ indicates, he wrestled or was wrestling him, both subject and object trying to throw down the other.
Form I خَدَعَهُ indicates he deceived, while form III خَادَعَهُ indicates, he tried or was trying to deceive him.

2 (h) . When effort is mutual, the object does to subject what the subject does to object, the مَفْعُول does to the فَاعِل what the فَاعِل does to the مَفْعُول .

ضَارَبْتُهُ I fought him. (I tried to beat him and he tried to beat me.)
قَاتَلْتُهُ I fought a kill or be killed fight with him. (I was trying to kill him and he was trying to kill me.)

3 (w) . When form I indicates a quality or state, form III indicates that one person (subject) makes use of that quality towards another (object), and affects him thereby, or brings him into that state.

Form I خَشُنَ indicates it was or became rough, while form III خَاشَنَ indicates, he treated or was treating him roughly.

4 (t)(n) . The effort or attempt or try in perfect of form III is usually not a did but rather a was doing or was doer of kind and in imperfect of form III for future sense is not a will do kind but rather will be doing or will be doer of kind. The noun that is doing the action is behaving as active participle during the duration of the action. Also the actions usually themselves present this concept even if we translate as most Arabic grammar books in english do with ed instead of was ...ing. He wrestled him, but wrestled is not a 1 time action but an ongoing effort, attempt or try during the duration of the action OR consecutive set of efforts, attempts or tries during the duration of the action during which he was wrestling him and trying to throw him down and even with wrestled the main idea is understood. In examples on this form III, I suggest translating was doing or was ...ing instead of did or ed. And I have mentioned examples using both orthodox english translation method and suggested method in most cases.    

5 (n)(q) . Above point can also explain why form III is sometimes said to indicate:

i. Consecutive actions , 
1 action following the other during the duration of the action
consecutive set of efforts, attempts or tries during the duration of the action. (e.g. he was trying to kill him and was putting 1 attempt or effort after another to do so.)
وَالَيْتُ الصَّوْمَ I fasted consecutively. I was fasting consecutively. 
(k) The subject doing the object continuously or consecutively

وَاصَلْتُ الْجُهْدَ I was striving continuously.

ii. Extensiveness or Muchness. (Possibly due to similar reason of continuous action or consecutive actions during the duration of the act.)

6 (h) .  Transitivity
Intransitive in form I becomes transitive in form III.
سَهُلَ (form I) it was or became easy.
سَاهَلَهُ (form III) he was easy with him. He was treating him gently.

Transitive in form I is transitive in form III also, if action is performed on the object of the root of the verb.
ضَرَبْتُهُ (form I) I beat him.
ضَارَبْتُهُ (form III) I fought him. (I was trying to beat him and he was trying to beat me.) 

Transitive in form I is doubly transitive or transitive to 2 objects in form III, if action is performed on or for another object that is not the object of the root of the verb.
جَذَبَهُ (form I) he pulled it.
جَاذَبَهُ الْحَبْل (form III) he contended or was contending with him in pulling the rope. (Subject and 1st object are both trying to pull the 2nd object i.e. the rope.)

7 (w) . When form I and IV denote an act, the relation of which to an object is expressed by means of a preposition, the form III converts that indirect object into the immediate or direct object of the act (by removing the preposition). The idea of reciprocity is more or less distinctly implied. Now since the Arabic preposition is removed, while translating in English, context and other factors have to be seen in deciding the preposition in English.

Form I : قَالَ لَهُ He said to him.
Form III : قَاوَلَهُ He conversed with him.

8 (w) . Sometimes denominative (i.e. derived from nouns (including adjectives)), but the ideas of effort and reciprocity are always more or less clearly implied.
(h)(k) . Making a thing to be possessed of its root or word from the same root. 

ضِعْف The like of a thing, that can double or multiply it. ضَاعَفَهُ He doubled or multiplied it. He was doubling or multiplying it.
سَفَر Journey. سَافَرَ He was journeying.

9 (k). Form III verb can also come for a root in which no Form I verb has come.

10 (k)(q) . Form III verb can also introduce new meaning not present in Form I verb, (n) but this meaning can be present in some word from same root.

11  . In some books (k)(q) , it is indicated via giving same translation for 2 verbal forms that :
In few cases it has same meaning as:
Form I
In few cases it has same meaning as:
Form II
In few cases it has same meaning as:
Form IV
In few cases it has same meaning as:
Form VI
But in my opinion, difference is there in meaning shades of the 2 forms, even if at 1st quick look the 2 forms appear to have similar meaning.

12 (a) . Its verbal nouns usually come on following patterns:

13 (w) . Table 1 demonstrating examples using root ق ت ل .

(q) . Table 2.

Important Note: 
Best examples for analyzing and verifying the level of applicability or non-applicability of above mentioned meaning shades and for finding additional meaning shades is by studying all occurrences of the form in The Qur'an and for that you can check relevant examples for this form in Pattern Wise Concordance PDF by visiting the post:
Pattern wise, Root wise & Letter wise Concordance of The Qur'an
& downloading the concordance documents freely. You can check relevant examples of most of the patterns used in the Qur'an by using concordance documents.

References: When multiple references mentioned for a point, it means material selected from all quoted references more from some and less from others and all quoted references do not necessarily agree on everything. Material is not exactly copied but based on the reference quoted and I have made additions, editions & changes where required :   
w = Wright Arabic Grammar English 
h = Howell Arabic Grammar English
q = Qawaid Zaban e Qur'an Urdu
a = Derived from other tools like arabic almanac or some other book.
t = arabic.tripod.com
k = Aasaan Khaasiyyaat e abwaab Urdu
n = new indication by me.