21 July 2014

Arabic Verb Form II (2) فَعَّلَ fa''ala fa33ala

Meaning shades of Arabic Verbal Form II
Also see posts on Other Arabic Verb Forms
This post is on The Meanings of Arabic Verb Form II فَعَّلَ  . Usually one or multiple (more than one) of the following meaning shades are applicable in a form II verb and applicable meaning shades may differ from verb to verb.
Last edited on : 8-August-2014 , and planned to be edited & improved further.

1 (a).  
Intense; Severe;
Emphasis; Energy; Strength;
Force; Vehemence; Vigor; Violence;
Extensive; Frequent; Repetitive; in steps; in stages;
Firm; Heavy.

2 (h). Multiplying (the root of the intransitive or transitive verb).
قَطَّعَ He cut (something) in pieces, he chopped (it), he cut (it) multiple times.

3 (w) . Intensive : Act is done with intensity.
ضَرَّبَ He beat (someone) intensely.

4 (w). Extensive :
Temporally Extensive: Act is done during a long time.
Numerically Extensive: Act done to or by a number of individuals.

5 (w). Repeatedly, Frequently, Iteratively : Act or set of actions is done again and again.
طَوَّفَ He went round (something) again and again, repeatedly, frequently.

6 (q)(k). This intensity, extensiveness, repetition can be in verb, subject (doer of verb) and object (one on which the verb is done). When intensity, extensiveness, repetition etc is in subject or object, it is obviously also in verb.

صَرَّحَ He thoroughly clarified . (in verb)
مَوَّتَتِ الْإِبِل Many camels died . (in subject (and verb))
قَطَّعْتُ الصِّيَاب I cut many clothes . (in object (and verb))

7 (a). Step by step, stage by stage:
Action involving or requiring steps, stages, special arrangements and graduality.
عَلَّمْتُهُ I taught him (step by step, stage by stage, gradually).  

8 (h) . Becoming possessed of its root. (Becoming possessed of the meaning shade of its source root or word from the same root).
وَرَّقَ It became leafy. 

9 (a) . Becoming what is indicated in the root or word from the same root.

10 (a). Demonstrative:
Being occupied with the quality expressed by the root.

11 (w). Denominative (i.e. derived from nouns (including adjectives) :
Expresses with various modifications the making or doing of, or being occupied with, the thing expressed by the noun from which it is derived.
خَيَّمَ He pitched a tent.   

12 (k) . Becoming like the thing described by the word from the same root.  
قَوَّسَ He became bent like a bow. قَوْس is bow and its root like the root of this form II verb is also ق و س .

13 . Causative:
 (h). Causing the thing to be or become possessed of its root.
فَرَّحْتُهُ I gladdened him; I caused him to become possessed of happiness.
(h). Imprecating upon the object the root of the verb (i.e. imprecating the meaning indicated in the root or in the word from same root).
(q). Making or causing something to become what is indicated in the word from the same root.
(q). Making or causing something to become the noun corresponding to the root of the verb.
(h). Making or causing its object to become in the state that it is in.
(a). Causing the object to do the action indicated in the root of the verb. 

14 (w)(q). Transitivity:
 (w). Verb that is intransitive in form I usually becomes transitive in form II.
زَكَّى He purified. 
 (w)(q). Verb that is transitive in form I usually becomes doubly transitive in form II. If it is already transitive another object is added.
(h)(a) . The 1st object is the object that is made/caused to do the action indicated in the verb and is the object of the subject. The 2nd object is the object on which the action indicated in the root of the verb is performed, and is the object of the verb.
حَمَّلَهُ اشَّيْءَ He (subject is also there in the verb) made him or caused him (the object of the subject, indicated by the هُ attached to the verb) to bear or carry the thing (on it the action is actually performed i.e. it is what is carried) .  

15 (w). Declarative or Estimative:
To declare, call, estimate, think some one to possess the meaning of the root.
كَذَّبْتُهُ I declared, called, estimated or thought it to be a lie.

16 (q). Attributing or Relating:
Attributing or relating someone or something to the meaning indicated by the root or the word from the same root.
فَسَّقْتُهُ I attributed فِسْق to him; I related him to فِسْق (going out of acceptable conduct in a corrupt manner).

17 (k) .  Accepting the thing indicated in the root, or word from the same root.
شَفَّعَهُ He accepted his intercession.   

18 (h)(q). Removal or Deprival :  
Removing the root of a thing. (Depriving a thing of the meaning indicated by its root or of the meaning indicated from the word from the same root.)
جَلَّدْتُ الْبَعِير I removed the skin of the camel.

19 (q) . Becoming attentive and directed towards the place indicated in the word from the same root .
شَرَّقَ He became attentive, directed to the east.

20 (w)(h) .  Movement towards a place & Going to the place (indicated in the word) that it is derived from .
شَرَّقَ He went to the east.

21 (q). Reaching the state or place indicated by the word from same root from.

عَمَّقَ الْمَآء The water reached عَمْق i.e. the depth or bottom (of a well).

22 (h) . Doing something in the time (indicated in the word) that it is derived from.
صَبَّحَ He came in morning. 

23 (q). Clothing the object with the cloth described by the word from the same root.

24 (q)(k). Covering or dying with the color of the thing described by the word from the same root. Joining or Decorating the object with the thing described by the word from the same root. 
ذَهَّبْتُهُ I made it golden. I dyed it with gold water. ذَهَب is gold and its root like the root of this form II verb is also ذ ه ب .

25 (q) . Introducing new meaning in form II which is not present in form I.
form II سَبَّحَ indicates: He declared the Absolute Perfection of ALLAH. He declared ALLAH to be  absolutely free from, far far... removed from, and far far... exalted above: everything derogatory from HIS Glory & Majesty, from all needs, all wants, all imperfections, all shortcomings, all unworthy and short falling estimates, assumptions, thoughts, & sayings regarding HIM.

He said سُبْحَانَ اللّٰهُ .
form I سَبَحَ indicates: He speedily: floated or glided or moved. He was or became remote, he traveled far in or into the land.

26 (k). Form II verb can also come for a root in which no Form I verb has come.
e.g. لَقَّبَ comes from root ل ق ب from which no form I verb comes.Forms V, III and VI also come from this root.

27 (q) . To shorten a sentence into 1 word.

كَبَّرَ He said اَللّٰهُ أَكْبَر (ALLAH is Absolutely Great).

28 . In various books (k)(q), it is indicated via giving same translation for 2 verbal forms that :
In few cases it has same meaning as:
Form I
In few cases it has same meaning as:
Form IV
In few cases it has same meaning as:
Form V
But in my opinion, difference is there in meaning shades of the 2 forms, even if at 1st quick look the 2 forms appear to have similar meaning.   

29 (a) . Its verbal nouns usually come on following patterns in order of usage, the top one most common and last one least common:

30 (w) . Table 1, demonstrating examples using root ق ت ل .
(q) . Table 2

Important Note: 
Best examples for analyzing and verifying the level of applicability or non-applicability of above mentioned meaning shades and for finding additional meaning shades is by studying all occurrences of the form in The Qur'an and for that you can check relevant examples for this form in Pattern Wise Concordance PDF by visiting the post:  
Pattern wise, Root wise & Letter wise Concordance of The Qur'an
& downloading the concordance documents freely. You can check relevant examples of most of the patterns used in the Qur'an by using concordance documents.

References: When multiple references mentioned for a point, it means material selected from all quoted references more from some and less from others and all quoted references do not necessarily agree on everything. Material is not exactly copied but based on the reference quoted and I have made additions, editions & changes where required :  
w = Wright Arabic Grammar English 
h = Howell Arabic Grammar English
q = Qawaid Zaban e Qur'an Urdu
a = Derived from other tools like arabic almanac or some other book.
k = Aasaan Khaasiyyaat e abwaab Urdu

Additional Notes 1: 
From this link
Extra Letters
Extra letters that are added to words are often indicative of the types of meanings they convey.

Base Letter Duplication
The verbal paradigm فَعَّلَ (i.e. form II) is achieved by doubling the middle base letter and one of its most prominent connotations is to indicate that an action has been done repeatedly. For example, the simple verb قَطَعَ means to cut, but the enhanced verb قَطَّعَ means to cut repeatedly (i.e. to chop). Notice that the multiplicity in the word has indicated on the multiplicity in the meaning.

Moreover, the paradigms اِفْعَلَّ (form IX) and اِفْعَالَّ (form XI) also have a doubling of a base letter and they afford the connotation of something happening a lot or repeatedly. For example, اِحْمَرَّ means to become very red or to blush and اِدْهَامَّ means to become dark green or black. Notice how the duplication of the base letters has indicated on the intensity and even the multiplicity of the meaning.

Similarly, the hyperbolic participle has many patterns. If we pry deep enough, we will notice that not all of these patterns give exactly the same sense of exaggeration to the root letters. The pattern فَعَّال (as well as فَعَّالَة) give the sense of doing something repeatedly to the extent that it becomes a habit, a profession, or the like. For example, رَحَّالَة means globetrotter (someone who travels repeatedly). Notice that here too the duplication of the base letter has indicated upon the duplication in the meaning.

This duplication doesn’t, in fact, have to be extra. 4-lettered words with letters one and three the same and two and four the same (form BQ I i.e. 1st form of quadriliteral with 2 root letters repeated twice) also connote repetition and duplication. For example, the word قَلْقَلَ means to be agitated; a state during which one moves around repeatedly. زَعْزَعَ means to convulse. صَلْصَلَ means to jingle, rattle, ring, or chink; all of these things are done repeatedly. Notice how the multiplicity in letters has indicated on the multiplicity in the action afforded by them.

Extra Letter Positioning

Not only does duplication play a role in the meaning, but its placement is also significant. Notice from above that with فَعَّلَ and فَعَّال , it is the middle letter that has been duplicated, whereas with اِفْعَلَّ and اِفْعَالَّ , it is the last letter.

In the case of the first two patterns, the connotation of repetition  is specific in the sense that the repetition happens quickly; no sooner does one instance of the action stop that the next one begins. Moreover, the action itself is choppy; it happens in small, quick instances. For example, تقطيع (chopping) (form II verbal noun) is something which is done quickly and one instance of the action is not entirely complete before the next starts. So notice how the speed and choppiness of the meaning is reflected in the fact that the duplication happens in the middle of the word; the word doesn’t end before the duplication is indicated.

Conversely, the duplication in اِفْعَلَّ and اِفْعَالَّ coming at the end indicates that the repetitions of the action are well spaced (relatively speaking) and that the action is not choppy but smooth. For example, اِحْمِرَار (blushing) (form IX verbal noun) is something that happens saliently and it is not choppy; ergo the connotation of intensity. And this has been indicated by the duplication happening at the end of the word; the action completes, then duplication happens.

Something similar happens in the case of صَرَّ and صَرْصَرَ  .a The former means to hum or buzz (as in a grasshopper) and the latter means to hum with pauses in between (e.g. to whip, as in the wings of an eagle). Notice how the compactness of the letters in صَرَّ indicates on the proximity of noises in a hum, and how the capaciousness of the letters in صَرْصَرَ indicates on the sparseness of the noises when whipping.

Thus far, our examples have been limited to base letter duplication. But the meanings afforded by extra letters as well as their positions is by no means limited to this. For example, consider the verb paradigm اِسْتَفْعَلَ (form X) . Notice that the extra letters that offer the “seeking” meaning (which is by far the most productive connotation of this paradigm) are brought before the base letters at the front of the word. This is because when you want something, you do not yet have it. First comes the seeking, and then comes the action afforded by the base letters. Hence the extra س and ت have accordingly been brought before the base letters.