20 August 2014

Arabic Verbal Form I (i) fa'ila فَعِلَ يَفْعَلُ يَفْعِلُ yaf'alu yaf'ilu fa3ila

Meaning shades of Arabic Verbal Form I (i)

Also see posts on Other Arabic Verb Forms
This post is on The Meanings of Arabic Verb Form I (i)  فَعِلَ, Usually one or multiple (more than one) of the following meaning shades are applicable in a form I (i) verb and applicable meaning shades may differ from verb to verb.
Last edited on : 22-August-2014 and planned to be edited and improved further.

فَعِلَ
i-a =  فَعِلَ i-a يَفْعَلُ
i-i = فَعِلَ i-i يَفْعِلُ

1 (w) . Mostly Intransitive, sometimes transitive. When intransitive, mostly indicates a temporary state or condition, or a merely accidental quality in persons or things.

2 (t) . Generally a stative structure. Rather than indicating real actions that occur over time, this structure usually refers to the state of the subject. These verbs usually do not indicate real actions. You don't actually do something when you "know". The stative verb "to know" can indicate 2 things:
It can indicate the simple being in the state of knowing.
It can indicate the becoming in the state of knowing; or in other words, it can indicate changing from the state of unknowing into the state of knowing.
Thus, stative verbs can indicate either being something or becoming something.
Most of the stative فَعِلَ verbs will primarily indicate the 2nd meaning, i.e. "he became something." A few number of them ill indicate "he was something" as a primary meaning.
The dynamic vs stative distinction between فَعَلَ and فَعِلَ is a general rule but is not always true. Sometimes inverse is also true.

3 (h)(n) . The general rule when perfect is فَعِلَ is that imperfect is mostly يَفْعَلُ (i-a) but when ف of root is و , then يَفْعِلُ (i-i) is mostly used so that cause of elision of و is there i.e. و when quiescent is deemed heavy between a ي pronounced with fatha and an inseparable kasra and is elided/dropped. Very few verbs have rare usage of form فَعِلَ i-i يَفْعِلُ in addition to more common and approved usage of form فَعِلَ i-a يَفْعَلُ without ف of root being a و but on deeper examination usage of i-i in them does not appear to be justified. Some verbs have form فَعِلَ i-a يَفْعَلُ despite ف of root being a و .

س The form فَعِلَ i-a يَفْعَلُ also known as form سَمِعَ
In such verbs, one or multiple from the following meaning shades may be applicable.

Important meaning shades:
(k) . Mostly 8 types of verbs come from i-a and can be used for indicating:

1 (k)(a) . Ailment, sickness, illness, disease; pain, ache etc.
سَقِمَ He became ill.
مَرِضَ He became sick. He had a disease.
وَجِعَ He had pain or ache.
أَلِمَ He suffered severe pain or ache.
شَكِعَ He went into a state of groaning with pain or illness. He was groaning with pain or illness.

2 (k)(a) . Grief, sorrow, sadness etc.
حَزِنَ He became affected with حُزْن (Past related worry. Roughness or uneasiness in the spirit on account of grief. Grief, sorrow, sadness. Grief arising on account of an unpleasant event that has happened, or on account of an object of love that has passed away.
خَزِيَ He became humiliated, disgraced, abased to the level of being ashamed of his state himself. 

3 (k)(a) . Gladness, joy, happiness, rejoicing etc.
فَرِحَ He experienced a sensation of lightness in his heart. He experienced dilation of his chest with delight or pleasure. This experience is usually of short duration, transitory and fleeting. He exulted or rejoiced: beyond due level or ungratefully or proudly.

4 (k)(a) . Colors. (Mostly Form IX and Form XI are used to indicate colors.)
شَهِبَ It was or became of the color termed شُهْبَة (grey, whiteness mixed with blackness.)
قَهِبَ It was or became of the color termed قُهْبَة (an ashy dust color or dusky white color etc.)
أَدِمَ He was or became of the color termed أُدْمَة ( wheatish)

5 (k)(a) . Defect, blemish, fault, faultiness, unsoundness, imperfection, something amiss etc.
شَكِسَ He became ill-natured in behavior or dealing.
لَحِزَ He became miserly.

6 (k)(a) . Condition, state, form, make, appearance, quality, attribute; aggregate of the attributes or qualities etc.
The examples below are also valid for defects point above.
ضَلِعَ It was or became crooked or curved. .
عَرِجَ He became lame.
عِوِرَ He became one eyed. He became blind of one eye.

7 (k)(a) Inflaming with anger; flaring, emotion, incitement, excitement, amazement, astonishment, agitation, restlessness, anxiety, fear etc.  
بَطِرَ He exulted and behaved insolently, ungratefully, thanklessly due to wealth.
قَلِقَ He became restless.
حَمِسَ He became hardy.
غَضِبَ He became angry.

8 (k)(a) . Hunger, thirst etc.
شَبِعَ He became sated or satiated, or satisfied in stomach after eating ample food. 
رَوِيَ He drank to satisfaction, he drank to his fill, he quenched his thirst. He drank enough to satisfy or quench his thirst.  
عَطِشَ He became thirsty.

9 (k) .  Mostly verbs like above 8 categories and verbs indicating change of state or condition come from i-a . In perfect of this form, ع of root is given kasra instead of fatha, i.e. perfect is فَعِلَ instead of فَعَلَ , as if in word and meaning there is change from 1 state or condition to another.

10 (k)(a) . Becoming  scared, afraid , confounded, stupefied, astonished, amazed on seeing the thing indicated in the word from the same root.
أَسِدَ He became stupefied by fear on seeing a lion i.e أَسَد 
بَقِرَ It (a dog) became confounded, stupefied, astonished on seeing بَقَر (wild oxen or wild bulls or cows).

11 (q) . This form is indicative of internal : states, conditions, emotions etc. 

Other meaning shades:
Following meaning shades are also possible in few verbs from i-a.

12 (k) . Attaching or gluing to the thing indicated in the word from the same root.

13 (k) . Becoming like the thing indicated in the word from the same root.

14 (k) . Becoming possessor of the meaning indicated in the root or thing indicated in the word from the same root. 
تَرِبَ It became dusty.
تَرِبَ he or it became affected with جَرَب  (mange or scab) . 

15 (k) . To indicate the subject or فَاعِل making the object or مَفْعُول to become possessed of the meaning indicated by the root or word from the same root. 

16 (k) . Subject or فَاعِل Removing from the object or مَفْعُول the meaning indicated by the root or thing indicated by the word from the same root .

Note: 
(k)(n)(a) . Some verbs come on both forms فَعِلَ i-a يَفْعَلُ and فَعُلَ u-u يَفْعُلُ . Verbs that have ي as عor ل of root don't come on form فَعُلَ u-u يَفْعُلُ except extremely few verbs presented by some as exceptions e.g. هَيُؤَ and these 2 with final ي converted to و as رَمُوَ and قَضُوَ  . Meaning shade is different, i-a usually indicating a temporary state or condition while u-u a permanent state or condition. Some books translate both verbs with same explanation but differences should be kept in mind and indicated in translation after also considering context in which each of the 2 forms is used.  

ح The form فَعِلَ i-i يَفْعِلُ also known as form حَسِبَ
1 (h) . The general rule when perfect is فَعِلَ is that imperfect is mostly يَفْعَلُ (i-a) but when ف of root is و , then يَفْعِلُ (i-i) is mostly used so that cause of elision of و is there i.e. و when quiescent is deemed heavy between a ي pronounced with fatha and an inseparable kasra and is elided/dropped. Very few verbs have rare usage of form فَعِلَ i-i يَفْعِلُ in addition to more common and approved usage of form فَعِلَ i-a يَفْعَلُ without ف of root being a و but on deeper examination usage of i-i in them does not appear to be justified. Some verbs have form فَعِلَ i-a يَفْعَلُ despite ف of root being a و . So فَعِلَ i-i يَفْعِلُ is not an original form and is converted from فَعِلَ i-a يَفْعَلُ due to above mentioned reason. Its meaning shades don't have to be discussed since same meaning shades of i-a hold for i-i also. 

2 (k)(n). All verbs that come on form i-i in The Qur'an have و as  ف of root, even حَسِبَ is used in the Qur'an on form i-a and not i-i . Following verbs are said in some books to come from i-i without ف of root being و
حَسِبَ , but it is used in the Qur'an on form i-a only and not even once on form i-i. More approved and used form is i-a and only 1 tribe has i-i dialect also.
بَئِسَ , its contracted form بِئْسَ is used in the Qur'an. Again no i-i usage in the Qur'an. Also in Lane Lexicon, only i-a is mentioned and no i-i and the claim or usage of i-i if any seems strange since ع of root is a guttural letter and such usually get fatha on ع of root in imperfect , then how is form i-i being claimed in addition to i-a?
نَسِيَ , but it is used in the Qur'an on form i-a only and not even once on form i-i.
نَعِمَ , its contracted form نِعْمَ is used in the Qur'an. Again no i-i usage in the Qur'an.
The claim or usage of i-i if any seems strange since ع of root is a guttural letter and such usually get fatha on ع of root in imperfect , then how is form i-i being claimed in addition to i-a?
يَبِسَ , neither i-a nor i-i used in the Qur'an.
 i-a is the more approved and used form and usage of i-i is extraordinary with respect to rules and usage. Though, I have discussed in I(a), the imperfect coming on a-i due to of ف root being a ي as a possible reason of it coming on form a-i and so here in I(i) also, this can be a rare and seldom used reason of coming on form i-i in addition to the approved form i-a in such cases.
يَئِسَ , but it is used in the Qur'an on form i-a only and not even once on form i-i.
i-a is the more approved and used form and usage of i-i is extraordinary with respect to rules and usage. The claim or usage of i-i if any seems strange since ع of root is a guttural letter and such usually get fatha on ع of root in imperfect , then how is form i-i being claimed in addition to i-a?

Important Note: 
Best examples for analyzing and verifying the level of applicability or non-applicability of above mentioned meaning shades and for finding additional meaning shades is by studying all occurrences of the form in The Qur'an and for that you can check relevant examples for this form in Pattern Wise Concordance PDF by visiting the post:  
Pattern wise, Root wise & Letter wise Concordance of The Qur'an
& downloading the concordance documents freely. You can check relevant examples of most of the patterns used in the Qur'an by using concordance documents.

References: When multiple references mentioned for a point, it means material selected from all quoted references more from some and less from others and all quoted references do not necessarily agree on everything. Material is not exactly copied but based on the reference quoted and I have made additions, editions & changes where required :   
k = Aasaan Khaasiyyaat e abwaab Urdu
h = Howell Arabic Grammar English
w = Wright Arabic Grammar English
t = arabic.tripod.com
q = Qawaid Zaban e Qur'an Urdu
n = new indication by me.
a = Derived from other tools like arabic almanac or some other book.