30 September 2015

Arabic Verb Form IV (4) أَفْعَلَ af'ala af3ala

Meaning shades of Arabic Verbal Form IV

Also see posts on Other Arabic Verb Forms
This post is on The Meanings of Arabic Verb Form IV أَفْعَلَ . Usually one or multiple (more than one) of the following meaning shades are applicable in a Form IV verb and applicable meaning shades may differ from verb to verb.Last edited on : 1-October-2015 and planned to be edited and improved further.

Strong Causative Function.
1 (w)(t) . Can be made from root by prefixing augmentative letter أ before it and giving it pattern أَفْعَلَ . Can be made from Form I by prefixing أَ to it, due to which ف looses its vowel and resulting pattern is أَفْعَلَ . This form has a specific أَ prefix and so it has a strong causative function.

جَلَسَ (Form I) He sat.

أَجْلَسَهُ (Form IV) He made him sit. He caused him to sit.
جَلَسَ to أَ + جَلَسَ to أَجْلَسَ

In جَلَسَ he was sitting, while in أَجْلَسَهُ some one made him sit and this is shown visibly in word also by adding of prefix أَ . Subject in Form I is now object in Form IV and new subject is introduced in Form IV using أَ .

2 (t) .  Sometimes it is used to give reflexive causative meaning.
causative = he made some one do
reflexive causative = he made himself do / he caused himself to do.

فَعَلَ (Form I) He did

أَفْعَلَهُ (Form IV causative) He made him (some one else) do

أَفْعَلَ (Form IV reflexive causative) He made himself do 

3 (w)(g) . Form IV verbs have a causative or factitive signification. (Factitive (for a verb) is having a sense of causing a result & taking a complement as well as an object, as in he appointed me captain.)

4 (w)(n) .When both Form II and Form IV are causative, difference in meaning shade is more obvious in some cases while in some cases deeper analysis is required to identify the difference in meaning shades:

عَلِمَ (Form I) He knew

عَلَّمَ (Form II) He taught

أَعْلَمَ (Form IV) He informed (someone) of a thing. He made/caused (someone) to know a thing.


Transitivity
5 (h) .  Intransitive in Form I usually becomes transitive in Form IV.

ذَهَبَ (Form I) he departed or went away.

أَذْهَبْتُهُ (Form IV) I made him depart or go away. I caused him to depart or go away.

6 (h) . When in Form I, both intransitive & transitive verbs are used, Form IV is usually made from the intransitive verb. There is difference in meaning shade between Form I transitive and Form IV transitive.

حَزِنَ He sorrowed/grieved.(Form I(i) intransitive)

حَزَنَهُ he made or caused sorrow/grief to be in him (some one else). (Form I(a) transitive)

أَحْزَنَهُ he made or caused him (some one else) to become sorrowful/grieved. (Form IV transitive)

7 (h) . Transitive to 1 in Form I usually becomes transitive to 2 in Form IV. The 1st object is made to do the action (the object made to do the thing indicated in the root) and the action is done on the 2nd object (the object on which the thing indicated in the root is done). in other words, the 1st is the object of the making to be, and the 2nd the object of the root of the verb.

أَحْفَرْتُ زَيْدًا ٱلنَّهْرَ I made/caused Zaid to dig the canal.

8 (h)(q). Transitive to 2 in Form I usually becomes transitive to 3 in Form IV. The 1st object is made to do the action (the object made to do the thing indicated in the root) and the 2nd and 3rd objects are related to the root of the word.

أَعْلَمْتُ زَيْدًا بَكْرًا مُطِيعًا I informed Zaid that Bakr is compliant. 

More meaning shades
9 (w)(t) .  Verbal Form IV also has a transformative meaning. It comprises a great number of verbs derived from nouns (denominal / denominatives) , many of which are apparently intransitive, because the Arabs often regard as an act what we view as a state. Such verbs combine with the idea of the noun, from which they are derived, that of a transitive verb, of which it is the direct object
He made be noun e.g. أَثْمَرَهُ He made it become fruit
He became noun e.g. أَثْمَرَ it became fruit
he nounized e.g. أَثْمَرَ it fructified or bore fruit

10 (w) Another class of these denominals / denominatives indicates:
the movement towards a place (to make for a place) e.g. أَيْمَنَ he went to Yemen
the entering upon a period of time (being, doing, or suffering something therein) e.g. أَصْبَحَ he entered the time of or did something in morning
getting into a state or condition, acquiring a quality, obtaining or having something, or becoming something of a certain kind.

Note: If you are having difficulty understanding the statement possessed of used multiple times in this post, you can simply understand it as possessor of.

11 (h) .  To indicate the subject or فَاعِل making the object or مَفْعُول to become the meaning indicated by the root or thing or quality indicated in the word from the same root as that of the Form IV verb.

أَهْدَيتُهُ I made it to be a هَدِيَّة a present.

12 (h) .  To indicate the subject or فَاعِل making the object or مَفْعُول to become possessed of the meaning indicated by the root or thing or quality indicated in the word from the same root as that of the Form IV verb.
أَجْدَاهُ He made him to be possessed of جَدًا a gift.

13 (h) .  To indicate the subject or فَاعِل making the object or مَفْعُول to become exposed to the meaning indicated by the root or thing or quality indicated in the word from the same root as that of the Form IV verb. (The أَ importing that you make what was object to the Form I to be exposed to possibly be the object to the root of the accident whether it become an object to it or not).

أَقْتَلَهُ He exposed him to killing (after being exposed to killing there were 2 possibilities, he was actually killed or he was not actually killed)

أَشْقَيْتُهُ I assigned to him a drink (whether he actually drank or not)

14 (k) . To indicate the subject or فَاعِل giving to the object or مَفْعُول the thing indicated in the word from the same root as that of the Form IV verb.

أَلْحَمْتُهُ I gave (fed) him لَحْم meat.

15 (k) . To indicate the subject or فَاعِل giving something to the object or مَفْعُول to make the object implement on that thing the meaning indicated by the root or thing or quality indicated in the word from the same root as that of the Form IV verb.

أَشْوَيْتُهُ I gave him meat for roasting ش و ي .

16 (k) .  To indicate the subject or فَاعِل allowing the object or مَفْعُول to do or implement the meaning indicated by the root or thing or quality indicated in the word from the same root as that of the Form IV verb.

أَقْطَعْتُهُ قُضْبَانًا I allowed him to cut off ق ط ع branches.

17 (h)(w)(k) . To indicate the subject or فَاعِل finding, estimating, or declaring the object or مَفْعُول to be subject or agent to the meaning indicated by the root or thing or quality indicated in the word from the same root as that of the Form IV verb. This is usually for intransitive meaning shades in root or Form I verb.

أَبْخَلَهُ He thought or estimated or found him to be niggardly.

18 (h)(w)(k) . To indicate the subject or فَاعِل finding, estimating, or declaring the object or مَفْعُول to be object to the meaning indicated by the root or thing or quality indicated in the word from the same root as that of the Form IV verb. This is usually for transitive meaning shades in root or Form I verb.

أَحْمَدَهُ He thought or estimated or found him to be one who is praised. 

19 (h)(k) .  To indicate the subject or فَاعِل depriving or removing from the object or مَفْعُول (usually from transitive verbs) the meaning indicated by the root or thing or quality indicated in the word from the same root as that of the Form IV verb.

أَشْكَيْتُهُ I removed his شِكَايَة complaint.

20 (h)(k) .  To indicate the subject or فَاعِل depriving or removing from itself (usually for intransitive verbs) the meaning indicated by the root or thing or quality indicated in the word from the same root as that of the Form IV verb.

أَقْسَطَ He removed قُسُوط wrongdoing/injustice from himself.

21 (h) . To indicate the subject or فَاعِل to become possessed of the meaning indicated by the root or thing or quality indicated in the word from the same root as that of the Form IV verb.

أَغَدَّ الْبَعِيرُ The camel became possessed of غُدَّة pestilential swelling. 
 
22 (h) . To indicate the subject or فَاعِل to become possessed of the thing which is possessed of the meaning indicated by the root or thing or quality indicated in the word from the same root as the Form IV verb .

أَجْرَبَ الرَّجُلُ the man became possessed of camels which are possessed of جَرَب scab.

23 (k)(a) . To indicate the subject or فَاعِل to do or become possessed of something in the place or time indicated in the word from the same root as the Form IV verb.

أَخْرَفَتِ الشَّاةُ the she-goat gave birth in the (season called) خَرِيف .

24 (k)(a) . To indicate the subject or فَاعِل entering a time which is worthy to do the action indicated in the root of the Form IV verb or due time coming on the subject to do the action indicated in the root of the Form IV verb.

أَحْصَدَ الزَّرْعُ the seed produce reached the proper time for being reaped. حَصَاد is the time or season of reaping and from same root as the verb.

25 (k) . To indicate the subject or فَاعِل to be worthy of the meaning indicated by the root or thing or quality indicated in the word from the same root as that of the Form IV verb.

أَلَامَ he became blameworthy.

26 (k) .  To indicate the subject or فَاعِل reaching the place indicated in a word from the same root.
أَيْمَنَ he reached يَمَن Yemen

27 (k) .  To indicate the subject or فَاعِل reaching the time indicated in a word from the same root.
أَصْبَحَ he reached صُبْح morning

28 (k) .  To indicate the subject or فَاعِل reaching the number indicated in a word from the same root.
أَعْشَرَ الطُّلاَّبُ the (number of) students reached 10.

29 (h) .  To indicate the subject or فَاعِل praying for the object or مَفْعُول to get the meaning indicated by the root or thing or quality indicated in the word from the same root as that of the Form IV verb. Form II verbal form is more common in the category of praying.

30 (k) . Exaggeration in the quantity of the thing indicated by the root or word from the same root as that of the Form IV verb.
أَتْمَرَ النَّخْلُ The date-palm tree became possessed of abundant quantity of تَمْر dried dates

31 (k) . Exaggeration in the intensity of the quality indicated by the root or word from the same root as that of the Form IV verb. 

32 (k)(q) . In a few cases, seldom, Form IV serves as the مُطَاوِع (quasi-passive: a verb whose (grammatical) agent receives the effect of the action of another verb) of Form II.

بَشَّرْتُهُ فَأَبْشَرَ I gave him glad tidings so he became glad.

33 (w)(h)(k)(a)  . In a very few cases, seldom, Form IV serves (instead of Form VII or Form VIII) as the مُطَاوِع (quasi-passive: a verb whose (grammatical) agent receives the effect of the action of another verb) of Form I.

كَبَّهُ فَأكَبَّ He threw him on his face and he fell on his face.


34 (k)(a) . Very rarely, a verb is transitive in Form I while intransitive in Form IV.
حَمِدَهُ (Form I) he thankfully praised Him.

أَحْمَدَ (Form IV) He became thankfully praised. 

35 (k) . Introducing new meaning in form IV which is not present in form I. 
root = ق س م
Form I = قَسَمَ he portioned and shared out
Form IV = أَقْسَمَ he swore

36  (k) . Form IV verb can also come for a root in which no Form I verb has come.
root = ر ق ل
Form I = Not Used
Form IV = أَرْقَلَ he hurried

37 (k)(q) . In various books , it is indicated via giving same translation for 2 verbal forms that :
In few cases it has same meaning as:
Form I
In few cases it has same meaning as:
Form II
In few cases it has same meaning as:
Form V
In few cases it has same meaning as:
Form X
But in my opinion, difference is there in meaning shades of the 2 forms, even if at 1st quick look the 2 forms appear to have similar meaning.

38 (a) . Its verbal noun usually comes on the following pattern:
إِفْعَال

39 (w) . Table 1, demonstrating examples using root ق ت ل .


40 (q) . Table 2


Important Note: 
Best examples for analyzing and verifying the level of applicability or non-applicability of above mentioned meaning shades and for finding additional meaning shades is by studying all occurrences of the Form in The Qur'an and for that you can check relevant examples for this Form in Pattern Wise Concordance PDF by visiting the post:
Pattern wise, Root wise & Letter wise Concordance of The Qur'an
& downloading the concordance documents freely. You can check relevant examples of most of the patterns used in the Qur'an by using concordance documents.

References: When multiple references mentioned for a point, it means material selected from all quoted references more from some and less from others and all quoted references do not necessarily agree on everything. Material is not exactly copied but based on the reference quoted and I have made additions, editions & changes where required :   

h = Howell Arabic Grammar English
w = Wright Arabic Grammar English
t = arabic.tripod.com by Hani Deek
k = Aasaan Khaasiyyaat e abwaab Urdu
q = Qawaid Zaban e Qur'an Urdu
n = new indication by me.
a = Derived from other tools like arabic almanac or some other book.
g = meanings obtained by searching factitive meaning in google search.