31 October 2015

Arabic Verb Form IX اِفْعَلَّ if'alla if3alla and Form XI اِفْعَالَّ if'aalla if3aalla

Meaning shades of Arabic Verb Form IX and Arabic Verb Form XI

Also see posts on Other Arabic Verb Forms
This post is on The Meanings of Arabic Verb Form IX اِفْعَلَّ and Arabic Verb Form XI اِفْعَالَّ .
Notes updated on : 31-October-2015 , and planned to be edited & improved further.

1 (w). Form IX can be made from root by doubling its ل and giving it pattern اِفْعَلَّ . Can be made from Form I فَعَلَ by doubling its ل , due to which it becomes فَعَلَّ and when ل is doubled, it draws the accent upon the previous letter ع , and the first letter ف being more rapidly pronounced loses its fatha. Then to facilitate its pronunciation اِ is added before it and resulting pattern is اِفْعَلَّ . Form IX is always intransitive.

2 (w). Form XI can be made from root by doubling its ل and giving it pattern اِفْعَالَّ . Can be made from Form I فَعَلَ by doubling its ل , due to which it becomes فَعَلَّ and when ل is doubled, it draws the accent upon the previous letter ع , and the first letter ف , being more rapidly pronounced loses its fatha. Then to facilitate its pronunciation اِ is added before it and resulting pattern is اِفْعَلَّ . Then ا is added to it and resulting pattern becomes اِفْعَالَّ and due to it there is more intensiveness in Form XI as compared to form IX. Form XI is always intransitive.

3 (t)(n). Forms IX & XI mostly indicate colors and sometimes physical characteristics (specially defects).

4 (t). Form IX and Form XI have a stative meaning shade. Rather than indicating real actions that occur over time, these forms refer to the state of the subject. The stative has 2 possible shades:
The being in a state: was/has been.
The becoming in a state, or the coming into a state : became/has become. Form IX & XI mostly have this meaning shade.  
Thus, stative verbs can indicate either being something or becoming something.

5 (n). All examples of Form IX used in The Qur'an indicate coming into a state and all examples are indicating a color. The only example of Form XI used in The Qur'an also indicates a color.

6 (n). Adjectives related to colors and physical characteristics usually take the pattern أَفْعَلُ in masculine and فَعْلَآء in feminine. We can also relate Form IX & Form XI to these like:
اِسْوَدَّ he became أَسْوَدُ black
اِسْوَآدَّ he became intensely أَسْوَدُ black

7 (n). The doubling of ل in both forms may be indicating the complete change of color or change of an outer characteristic. The intensiveness type is the complete change of an outer characteristic e.g. change of color is a complete change in a thing from 1 color to the other. It is also possible that the doubling of ل may be for indicating a layer of color over the original outer layer.

8 (n)(a) . Form IX sometimes indicates metaphorical color change e.g.
اِسْوَدَّ وَجْهُهُ his face became black; his face became expressive of grief, sorrow, displeasure, disgrace etc.
اِبْيَضَّ وَجْهُهُ his face became white; his face became expressive of cheerfulness, joy etc.

9 (b). Form XI has more intensiveness than Form IX and instead of meaning اِحْمَرَّ he became red, it means اِحْمَآرَّ he became intensely red, or densely red, or very red.

10 (n). Form IX change of color is usually only a temporary, transitory or accidental color change while Form XI change of color can also be a permanent and inseparable color change.

11 (n). All examples of Form IX and Form XI used in the Qur'an from.
Pattern wise, Root wise & Letter wise Concordance of The Qur'an
Click the Buckwalter column links to open the words in Qur'anic Arabic Corpus
12 (n) . Arabic Almanac links for the roots from The Qur'an from which Form IX and Form XI have come are:
Form IX
ب ي ض
خ ض ر
س و د
ص ف ر


Form XI
د ه م

13 (q). Table


Important Note:
Best examples for analyzing and verifying the level of applicability or non-applicability of above mentioned meaning shades and for finding additional meaning shades is by studying all occurrences of the Form in The Qur'an and for that you can check relevant examples for this Form in Pattern Wise Concordance PDF by visiting the post:
Pattern wise, Root wise & Letter wise Concordance of The Qur'an
& downloading the concordance documents freely. You can check relevant examples of most of the patterns used in the Qur'an by using concordance documents.

References: When multiple references mentioned for a point, it means material selected from all quoted references more from some and less from others and all quoted references do not necessarily agree on everything. Material is not exactly copied but based on the reference quoted and I have made additions, editions & changes where required :   

b = binaa al af'aal English translation
t = Arabic notes on tripod site by Hani Deek
n = new indication by me.
a = Derived from other tools like arabic almanac or some other book.
q= Qawaid Zaban e Qur'an Urdu

27 October 2015

Arabic Verb Form VII (7) اِنْفَعَلَ Infa'ala Infa3ala

Meaning shades of Arabic Verbal Form VII


Also see posts on Other Arabic Verb Forms
This post is on The Meanings of Arabic Verb Form VII اِنْفَعَلَ . Usually one or multiple (more than one) of the following meaning shades are applicable in a Form VII verb and applicable meaning shades may differ from verb to verb.
Last edited on : 27-October-2015 and planned to be edited and improved further.

1 . (w)(t) Can be made from root by prefixing augmentative letter نْ before it and giving it pattern اِنْفَعَلَ . Can be made from Form I فَعَلَ by prefixing نْ to it, due to which it becomes نْفَعَلَ and then to facilitate its pronunciation اِ is added before it and resulting pattern is اِنْفَعَلَ . Form VII is always intransitive.

2 (t)(n) . This form has a specific نْ prefix and it basically has a Self Reflexive meaning shade (in which the agent does the action on itself, the action is carried out by the subject towards the subject. Thus the subject of a reflexive verb is both the performer and the recipient of the action). The نْ prefix addition at the beginning can be said to be adding the meaning shade of to itself here. So naturally Form VII is always intransitive. This form has an inherent or inbuilt object i.e. itself, the one doing the action and the one on which the action is done is the same.

خَفَضَهُ (Form I) he lowered it

اِنْخَفَضَ (Form VII) he lowered himself

3 (w)(n) . Form VII can also have an Effective signification. The effective signification differs from the passive signification in this that the passive indicates that a person is the object of, or experiences the effect of, the action of another; whereas the effective implies that an act is done to a person, or a state produced in him, whether it be caused by another or by himself or automatically.
(t)(n) . This can also be called Agentless signification, passive without agent, in which the agent is totally ignored and not even assumed. The passive without agent denotes an action directed toward the subject without saying anything about the fact that someone did it. In other words, it ignores the agent of the action.

فَتَحَهُ (Form I) he opened it

اِنْفَتَحَ (Form VII) it became opened

4 (t) . In rare cases, where Form I is also intransitive, Form VII usually has a reflexive causative signification i.e. causing or making itself become.

دَثَرَ (Form I) he faded away

اِنْدَثَرَ (Form VII) he made himself fade away

5 (h)(k)(t) . Form VII is usually peculiar to physical action and production of impression. Because reception of impression is more appropriate and congruous in what is apparent to the eyes, e.g. breathing, cutting, pulling etc. (simple, basic actions). Usually the Form VII verbs have the impact or effect of acts done by the use of limbs e.g. breaking, and/or are those that are usually perceivable by the 5 senses i.e. sight, hearing, touching, tasting, smelling.

ِاِنْقَطَعَ It became cut (Form VII) (limbs e.g. hand can be involved in cutting and cutting can also be perceived by sense of sight)

6 (h)(k) . Form VII اِنْفَعَلَ is quasi-passive مُطَاوِع of Form I فَعَلَ
(a) . مُطَاوِع is a verb whose (grammatical) agent receives the effect of the action of the agent another verb.
(w) . The مُطَاوِع expresses the state into which the object of the action denoted by the verb of which it is مُطَاوِع is brought by that action, as its effect or result.

كَسَرْتُهُ فَٱنْكَسَرَ I broke it (Form I) , so it became broken (Form VII)

7 (w) . Sometimes Form VII implies that a person allows an act to be done in reference to him, or an effect be produced upon him.

اِنْخَدَعَ (Form VII) he let himself be deceived

8 (w) . The reflexive pronoun contained in form VII is never the indirect object to which may be added another object, but always the direct object of the act. Form VII never assumes the reciprocal signification.

9 (w) . Form VII اِنْفَعَلَ is sometimes quasi-passive مُطَاوِع of Form IV أَفْعَلَ specially in modern Arabic but very rarely in Classical Arabic.

أَصْلَحَهُ فَٱنْصَلَحَ he rectified it (Form IV) , so it became rectified (Form VII)

10 (k)(q) . Introducing new meaning in Form VII which is not present in Form I. 

11 (w) . Table 1, demonstrating examples using root ق ت ل



12 (q) . Table 2


Important Note: 
Best examples for analyzing and verifying the level of applicability or non-applicability of above mentioned meaning shades and for finding additional meaning shades is by studying all occurrences of the Form in The Qur'an and for that you can check relevant examples for this Form in Pattern Wise Concordance PDF by visiting the post:
Pattern wise, Root wise & Letter wise Concordance of The Qur'an
& downloading the concordance documents freely. You can check relevant examples of most of the patterns used in the Qur'an by using concordance documents.

References: When multiple references mentioned for a point, it means material selected from all quoted references more from some and less from others and all quoted references do not necessarily agree on everything. Material is not exactly copied but based on the reference quoted and I have made additions, editions & changes where required :   

h = Howell Arabic Grammar English
w = Wright Arabic Grammar English
t = Arabic notes on tripod site by Hani Deek
k = Aasaan Khaasiyyaat e abwaab Urdu
q = Qawaid Zaban e Qur'an Urdu
n = new indication by me.
a = Derived from other tools like arabic almanac or some other book.