24 December 2016

Arabic Particles: Learn Arabic Preposition بِ bi

Learn Arabic Preposition بِ bi meaning shades and usage.
Learn Arabic Preposition bi
See Arabic Particles Meanings series to learn Arabic particles and related words meanings.
Also see Arabic Particles Quick Study Tool.

Last edited on : 4 January 2017

1 (n,k) . The core meaning shade of Arabic preposition بِ bi appears to be
connection.
which is, on a deeper analysis, visible or traceable in almost all its meaning shades. 

2 (n,l,h,m) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is used to indicate
connection, adhesion, adjunction, association.

The usage of بِ bi can either be
real / proper / physical / perceptible by sense (e.g. physically connected with something)
tropical / ideal / conceptual / perceptible by intellect (e.g. conceptually connected like he did this in connection with that plan )

The usage of بِ bi can either be
Absolute e.g. he came with him.
Relative e.g. he passed by him (i.e. without physical contact but just relative to him, which we can also say in connection with or with reference to).

[ with , in , by, connected with , adhered to , in connection with , with reference to ]

بِهِ دَاۤءٍ with / in / connected with / adhering to him is a disease.
مَرَّ بِهِمْ he passed by / in connection with / with reference to them.
جَلَسَ بِهِ he sat with / by him.

3 (l,h,f) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
instrument or tool, using a thing as an aid or instrument. 

[ with , by means of ]

كَتَبَ بِٱلْقَلَمِ he wrote with the pen.
ضَرَبْتُ بِٱلسَّيْفِ I struck with the sword.

4 (l,h) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
accompaniment / concomitance.

[ with ]

اَلْفَرَسُ بِلِجَامِهِ وَ سَرْجِهِ the horse with its bridle and its saddle.

5 (p) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
accompanying state or accompanying environment.

[ with , with a state of , in a state of ]

هَبَطَ بِسَلَامٍ he descended with / with a state of / in a state of safety.

6 (l,h)(n) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
connection with a place, time or event ( place + time + happenings )

[ with , in , in connection with ]

وَلَقَدْ نَصَرَكُمُ اللّٰهُ بِبَدْرٍ and assuredly ALLAH already Helped you(pl) with Badr. (Translation attempt for words from The Qur'an 3:123)
This help was in connection with the event of Badr.
An event includes the place, the time, and other things that happen during it.
Note: In English also, it is said, he helped you with your project, he helped you with your assignment, he helped you with your homework.

جَلَسَ بِٱلْمَسْجِدِ he sat in the masjid. He sat connected with (a location inside) the masjid.
جَلَسَ فِى ٱلْمَسْجِدِ he sat in the masjid. He sat within the masjid (inside the boundary of the masjid).
In both these cases, he is in the masjid, but there is a subtle difference in terms of the angle with which we are looking at this situation or the angle we want to highlight while describing the fact that he is in the masjid.

7 (l,h,p,n) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
reason, in connection with which something is done. (Reason, because of which something is done) 

[ by , with ,  in connection with , because of ]

إِِنَّكُمْ ظَلَمْتُمْ أَنفُسَكُمْ بِٱتِّخَاذِكُمُ ٱلْعِجْلَ certainly you(pl) have wronged your(pl) selves by / with / in connection with / because of your(pl) adopting the calf. (Translation attempt for words from The Qur'an 2:54) 

8 (l,h,n) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
the giving or doing of something as a substitute / replacement / payment
with which something else is obtained. 
The giving of or doing of something in return for getting something else. 

[ with ] ( in exchange for , in replacement for )

هٰذَا بِذٰلِكَ this in replacement for that.
اِشْتَرَيْتُهُ بِأَلْفِ دِرْهَمٍ I acquired it with a 1000 dirhams.

9 (l,h,a,n) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to
render a verb transitive and is also used with some verbs to make idioms.

[ with , (modification of verb meaning e.g. come becomes bring, go away becomes take away) ]

ذَهَبَ he went away. (Form I)

أَذْهَبَهُ he caused him to go away. (Form IV. Impact of this case is that he caused his going away or initiated it.)

ذَهَبَ بِهِ he went away with him. (Form I with separable role of بِ and verb. Impact of this case is that he performed the act of going away with him or with his accompaniment.)

ذَهَبَ بِهِ he took him away. (Form I with combined role of بِ and verb. Impact of this case can be that he had an active role in taking him away but he did not himself go away with him, or it can be that he took him away holding him.)

ذَهَبَ بِهِ he did away with him (i.e. finished him). (Form I and بِ in the sense of idiom)
(Note: Do away with is also used as an idiom in English in the same sense)

10 (n) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
in connection with or with reference to something.

[ in connection with , with reference to ]

سَأَلَ بِهِ he asked in connection with / with reference to it.
vs
سَأَلَ عَنْهُ he asked of / regarding / about it.

11 (a,n) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
the target or recipient.

[ with ]

أَحْسَنَ بِكَ he was well with you.
vs
أَحْسَنَ إِلَيْكَ he was well towards you.

12 (h,l,s,n,m) . The بِ bi is also used as
the original particle of swearing 
The بِ bi is attached before (i.e. prefixed) to what / who is sworn by or promised by or to what / who is taken as witness / sign / evidence.  With بِ or by means of بِ we attach the swearing to the sworn by or we simply attach the بِ to the sworn by. In English also the word by plays a similar role.

Since بِ is the original particle of swearing, it has some unique features among particles of swearing :
i. The بِ bi can be prefixed to the pronoun also.
ii. The verbs of swearing e.g حَلَفَ or أَقْسَمَ etc. can be mentioned with بِ bi, instead of suppressing them.
iii. The بِ bi can be used for (conciliatary and propitiatory) adjuring or conjuring (of the one addressed) for inducing him to incline to that which is desired of him e.g. (I adjure you) by...

[ by ]

بِاللّٰهِ لَاَفْعَلَنَّ كَذَاۤ إِنْ شَاۤءَ اللّٰهُ by ALLAH, I will certainly do like this, inshaALLAH!

13 (w) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used with
غَيْر and لَا to indicate without
بِغَيْرِ with other than , without
بِلَا with no, without

14 (n) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
connection between 2 statements or between a word and a statement or connection between 2 words.
Many examples from this category are usually called corroborative or redundant بِ but a closer and deeper examination indicates that the overall meaning shade with and without it is different.

Related concepts to this point are :
i. A word on a verb form I active participle pattern or verb form I passive participle pattern is also sometimes used as a verbal noun.
ii. A word or statement coming after بِ bi can also be denoting a state.
iii. When a statement is connected with some one, it can imply is always etc. When a statement is connected in a negative sense, it can imply is never or is not at all, is in no way etc.
Someone + bi + Statement. This someone is connected with this statement. We can say the statement always holds true for him.
Negative + Someone + bi + Statement. This someone has no connection with this statement. We can say the statement never holds true for him or is in no way and not at all connected with him.

[ with , connected with , in connection with , with a state of , in a state of , (overall impact in translation of the set of words or statements connected via it) ]

كَسَرَ بِقَلْبِكَ he performed the act of breaking with your heart. Without بِ it will be, he broke your heart.

وَكَفَىٰ بِاللّٰهِ عَلِيمًا and suffices with ALLAH as Ever-Knower. (Translation attempt for selected words from The Qur'an 4:70) . Without بِ it may be translated as, and ALLAH suffices as Ever-Knower.

وَمَا رَبُّكَ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا يَعْمَلُونَ and your Maintaining-Lord is never unaware regarding what you(pl) are performing. And your Maintaining-Lord has no connection with being unaware regarding what you(pl) are performing. And your Maintaining-Lord is in no way / not at all unaware regarding what you(pl) are performing. (Translation attempts for selected words from The Qur'an 6:132) . Without بِ it may be translated as, and your Maintaining-Lord is not unaware regarding what you are performing.

بِأَييِّكُمُ الْمَفْتُونُ with which of you(pl) is the affliction OR with / in which of you(pl) is the state of being afflicted OR with which of you(pl) is the afflicted. (Various possible translation attempts for selected words from The Qur'an 68:6) Without بِ it may be translated as, Which of you(pl) is the afflicted.

خَرَجْتُ فَإِذَا بِٱلْأَسَدِ I went forth and all of a sudden was with the lion.

15 . To study this particle further in many other books read the pages for this particle in
Arabic Particles Tool . Also to see other posts in Arabic Particles Meanings series.

References: When multiple references mentioned for a point, it means material selected from all quoted references more from some and less from others and all quoted references do not necessarily agree on everything. Material is not exactly copied but based on the reference quoted and I have made additions, editions & changes where required :
w = Wright Arabic Grammar English
h = Howell Arabic Grammar English
l = Lane's Lexicon
n = New indication by me
a = Arabic Almanac books
p = Arabic Particles Tool books
m = Sharh of Miatu Amil .
f =  Fischer Arabic Grammar (its PDF can be downloaded from the link).
k = At Tahqeeq fi Kalimat il Qur'an il Kareem (its PDF can be downloaded from the link)
s = A Study of Qur'anic Oaths .

Arabic has been typed using the free and detailed Arabic keyboard, latest live version of which is available at:
Online Arabic Keyboard to Type Arabic Directly using English Keyboard with 7 Arabic Web Fonts .

3 December 2016

Arabic Particles: Learn Arabic Preposition عَلَىٰ ala

Learn Arabic Preposition عَلَىٰ ala meaning shades and usage.
Learn Arabic Preposition ala
See Arabic Particles Meanings series to learn Arabic particles and related words meanings.
Also see Arabic Particles Quick Study Tool.

Last edited on : 3 December 2016

1 (w,h)(n) . The Arabic preposition عَلَىٰ ala is used
i. In its original local sense to indicate higher elevation or superiority of position :
a. On top of , above or over its genitive (most common) .
b. On an elevation above its genitive.
ii. To indicate outer elevation over its genitive. This elevation can be over any of the sides also, not only the top. A paint on the wall is not literally on the top of the wall but on the side face of the wall. A guard on the door is not literally sitting on top of the door but over / upon /on / at its front or entrance i.e. at an elevation not with reference to the top of the door but an elevation with reference to the front or entrance of the door. The clothes on you are not literally on top of your head, but on you with respect to being on or over your body covering over the body from. Side elevation is used in English also, e.g. in architect drawings, the views from the front and sides are called elevations. This outer elevation is indicated in books like (h,l) differently as a case of superiority of position over something near the genitive.
iii. Another related meaning is in front of which is mentioned in some books as under. This is a case of elevation from the front of its genitive.

The usage of عَلَىٰ ala can either be: 
real / proper / physical / perceptible by sense (e.g. physically on the table)
tropical / ideal / conceptual / perceptible by intellect (e.g. debt due upon someone , ruler over masses)

Genitive of عَلَىٰ ala is the word governed by it in the genitive case. 

[ on , upon , over , at , in front of ]

هُوَ عَلَى ٱلسَّطْحِ he is on / upon the flat roof.
جَلَسَ عَلَى ٱلْمَاۤءِدَةِ he sat at the table. (This can be because a person sitting at a table rises above the level of it. Also this can be because of sitting over any of its sides at an elevation with reference to its side and not with reference to its top)
عَلَيْكَ ثِيَابَ قُطُنٍ on / upon / over you are clothes of cotton. (Again this is not literally on top like cotton clothes are not above your head literally but on or upon or over your body)
قَعَدَ عَلَىٰ بَابِ دَارِهِ he sat at the door of his house.
اَلْقَرْيَةُ عَلَى ٱثْنَىْ عَشَرَ مِيلًا مِنَ ٱلْفُسْطَاطِ The town is at 12 miles from al-Fustaat. (i.e. at a side elevation or distance of 12 miles from one of its sides)
قَرَأَ عَلَىٰۤ أَبِيهِ he recited it in front of his father. 
عَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ upon / on him is a dept.
سَلَامٌ عَلَيْكُمْ peace/safety on / upon you (all).
جَعَلَهُ أَمِيرًا عَلَى ٱلْعِرَاقِ he made him ruler over Iraq.

2 (w,n) . The Arabic preposition عَلَىٰ ala is also used to indicate
duty / responsibility / obligation / doable / dept / loan which is
due / deliverable / incumbent 
on / upon someone i.e. on the genitive of عَلَىٰ ala
Hence it is used after verbs signifying to prescribe, to decree, to make incumbent or unavoidable etc. 

[ on , upon ] ( due upon , incumbent upon )

عَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ on / upon him is a dept OR (due) upon / on him is a dept OR (translating non-literally) he owes a dept.
عَلَيْكَ أَنْ تَفْعَلَ هَٰذَا on / upon you is that you do this OR (incumbent) on / upon you is that you do this.
(Note: In English also on is used in a similar sense, e.g., this is on you means this is your responsibility)

3 (w) . The Arabic preposition عَلَىٰ ala is also used to indicate
the advantage, superiority, or distinction, which one person or thing has over another

[ over , above ]

اِخْتَارَهُ عَلَىٰ ذَٰلِكَ he preferred it over that.

4 (w) . The Arabic preposition عَلَىٰ ala is also sometimes used
in a hostile sense, in case of which it is usually translated as upon or against

[ upon , against , up against , on , at ]

خَرَجَ عَلَيْهِ he went out upon / against him.
عَتَبَ عَلَيهِ he was angry on / upon / at him.
أَغْرَى ٱلْكَلْبَ عَلَيْهِ he incited the dog upon / against / at him.

5 (w) . The Arabic preposition عَلَىٰ ala is also used to indicate
the ground or basis in terms of condition/state on which a person stands with respect to religion, trade, profession, health, fortune, mental/bodily gifts etc.

[ upon , on , based upon , (standing) upon / on ]

لَيْسَ عَلَى ٱلشَّيْءِ he is not upon / on / based upon anything. He is not (standing) upon anything i.e. he has nothing to stand on.

6 (w) . The Arabic preposition عَلَىٰ ala is also used to indicate
the ground or basis in the sense of terms / condition on which something is done.

[ on , on condition ]

عَلَىٰ هَٰذَا ٱلْشَّرْطِ on this condition.
ذَٰلِكَ عَلَىٰ أَن يَّفْعَلَ that is on condition that he does 

7 (w) . The Arabic preposition عَلَىٰ ala is also used to indicate
the ground or basis in terms of the cause / reason on which one does a thing.

[ on , on account of ]

لَاۤ أَسْأَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْرًا I do not ask you on / on account of it a fee...  ( Translation attempt for selected words from The Qur'an 6:90 ) 

8 (w) . The Arabic preposition عَلَىٰ ala is also used to indicate
the ground or basis in terms of the means via which something is done.

[ by means of , via ]

وَعَدَكَ عَلَيْهِ he promised you by means of him. 

9 (w,n,l) . The Arabic preposition عَلَىٰ ala is also used to indicate
the rule or standard upon or based on or according to which something is done. It indicates
conformity, accordance, adaptation or agreement.

[ on , upon , based on ] ( according to )

عَلَىٰ هَٰذِهِ ٱلطَّرِيقَةِ on / upon this manner of conduct
عَلَىٰ مَا رَأَيْتُ فِى ٱلْكُتُبِ based on what I have seen in the books.

10 (w) . The Arabic preposition عَلَىٰ ala is also used to indicate
the subject on / of / concerning which we speak as if our conversation was based on it. 

[ on , of , concerning ]

قَالَ عَلَىٰ ذَٰلِكَ he spoke on that.

11 (n) . The Arabic preposition عَلَىٰ ala is also used to indicate
the being on / of / concerning whom we speak as if our conversation was based on him or our conversation was based on something under his authority or something coming from him.

[ on , of , concerning ,  concerning that which is under the authority of , concerning that which proceeds from ]

أَمْ تَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللّٰهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ ...or do you say concerning / concerning that which is under the authority of ALLAH what you don't know. ( Translation attempt for selected words from The Qur'an 2:80 ) 

12 (w) . The Arabic preposition عَلَىٰ ala is also used to indicate
something happening in spite of / despite / notwithstanding another thing that might have prevented it.

[ in spite of , despite , notwithstanding ]

قَتَلَ أَسَدًا عَلَىٰ صِغَرِ سِنِّهِ he killed a lion notwithstanding / in spite of / despite smallness of its age. 

13 (f) . The Arabic preposition عَلَىٰ ala is also used to indicate
onto

[ onto ]

سَقَطَ عَلَى ٱلْأَرْضِ he fell onto the ground. 

14 (l) . The original letters in عَلَىٰ are ع ل و .

15 . To study this particle further in many other books read the pages for this particle in
Arabic Particles Tool . Also to see other posts in Arabic Particles Meanings series.

References: When multiple references mentioned for a point, it means material selected from all quoted references more from some and less from others and all quoted references do not necessarily agree on everything. Material is not exactly copied but based on the reference quoted and I have made additions, editions & changes where required :
w = Wright Arabic Grammar English
h = Howell Arabic Grammar English
l = Lane's Lexicon
n = New indication by me
a = Arabic Almanac books
p = Arabic Particles Tool books
m = Sharh of Miatu Amil .
f =  Fischer Arabic Grammar (this link is not a separate post on it , but its PDF can be downloaded from the page).

Arabic has been typed using the free and detailed Arabic keyboard, latest live version of which is available at:
Online Arabic Keyboard to Type Arabic Directly using English Keyboard with 7 Arabic Web Fonts .

25 November 2016

Arabic Particles : Learn Arabic Preposition فِى fi

Learn Arabic Preposition فِى fi meaning shades and usage.
Learn Arabic Preposition fi
See Arabic Particles Meanings series to learn Arabic particles and related words meanings.
Also see Arabic Particles Quick Study Tool.

Last edited on : 25 November 2016

1 (h) . The Arabic preposition فِى fi is used to indicate
Adverbiality
  • Real
    • Local (in place) 
    • Temporal (in time) 
  • Tropical (figurative, not literally in a place or time, but in something else, e.g. in doing something)
[ in , within , in the midst of , during ]

2 (l) . The Arabic preposition فِى fi
relates to a receptacle (container, vessel), and when used in a wider sense to that which has some near resemblance thereto and also to what is considered as a receptacle. It denotes inclusion or in-being in relation to place or time either properly or tropically.

[ in , within , in the midst of , into , during ]

3 (w) . The Arabic preposition فِى fi shows that 1 thing is actually in the midst of another, surrounded by it on all sides while the Arabic preposition بِ merely indicates that 1 is close by the other or in contact with it.

[ in , within , in the midst of ]

4 (w) . The Arabic preposition فِى fi is used to indicate
rest in a place or during a time or motion into a place
This signification is then further transferred to the relation subsisting between any 2 things, one of which is regarded as the place in which the other is, or happens or into which it goes or is put.
 
[ in , within , in the midst of , into , during ]

5 (l,w,h) . Examples for points 1 to 4 since they are conveying related and the core meaning shades of فِى fi from different angles.

[ in , within , in the midst of , into , during ]
 
فِى ٱلْبَيْتِ in / within / in the midst of the house.
فِى أَيَّامٍ مَّعْدُودَاتٍ in / during counted days.
وَقَعَ فِى ٱلْبِئْرِ he fell into the well.
وَلَكُمْ فِى ٱلْقِصَاصِ حَيَوٰةٌ and for you, in the retaliation*, is life...  ( Translation attempt for selected words from The Qur'an 2:179 )
*This is not ordinary retaliation but tit for tat style retaliation. Punishing criminal in same manner as he has punished the victim. 

6 (w, n, l) . The Arabic preposition فِى fi is also used to indicate
in the midst of , and the noun following is usually a plural or collective.
Then this primary meaning of in the midst of also gives related meaning of among or secondary meaning of with in some cases. With here does not mean close by the other or simply in contact with it, but rather with (in the midst of) or with (among) or with (in a group form) or with (join with) etc.

[ in the midst of , among , with ] (1st فِى in 1st example and the one in 2nd example)
[ in , into ] (2nd فِى in 1st example)

قَالَ ٱدْخُلُوا فِىۤ أُمَمٍ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِنْ قَبْلِكُم مِّنَ ٱلْجِنِّ وَٱلْإِنْسِ فِى ٱلنَّارِ HE Said:"You enter in the midst of / among nations which have already passed from before you of Jinn and Mankind in / into the fire..." ( Translation attempt for selected words from The Qur'an 7:38 )
تَوَجَّهَ فِى خَمْسِينَ أَلْفًا he set out in the midst of / among / with (in the form of a group) 50000.

7 (w, l) . The Arabic preposition فِى fi is also sometimes used to indicate
a combination of 2 qualities, a quality in another quality.

[ in , combined with ] (blended with, mixed with etc.)

سَوَادٌ فِى حُمْرَةٍ blackness in redness. Blackness combined with / blended with redness.
طُولٌ فِى ٱسْتِرْخَاءٍ length combined with looseness.

8 (w, l) . The Arabic preposition فِى fi is also sometimes used to indicate
multiplication (into) and proportion (in terms of length by breadth etc.)

[ into , by ]

ثَلَٰثَةٌ فِى خَمْسَةٍ three into five (in case of multiplication). Three by five (in case of length by breadth etc.)

9 (w, l) . The Arabic preposition فِى fi is also used
in the comparison of 2 objects, the one coming before فِى being inferior or smaller of the 2 and the one mentioned after فِى being superior or larger of the 2. The smaller one being, as it were, placed within the larger one for the purpose of comparing the 2.

[ in , put into , compared in , in comparison within ]

مَا ٱلْحَيَوٰةُ ٱلدُّنْيَا فِى ٱلْاۤخِرَةِ إِلَّا مَتَٰعٌ The life of the nearest (worldly life) is nothing in the last (hereafter) except consumable / temporary provision. ( Translation attempt for selected words from The Qur'an 13:26 )

10 (w) . The Arabic preposition فِى fi is also used to indicate
the subject of thought or conversation, that in which these move. Hence it is also used in stating the subject of a book or chapter.

[ concerning , regarding , about , in the matter of , in the subject / topic / case of ] ( on )

تَكَلَّمَ فِى ذَٰلِكَ he spoke concerning / regarding / about that.

11 (w) . The Arabic preposition فِى fi is also used to indicate
assigning a cause - in or for which something is done

[ in the cause of , in the interest of , for , for the sake of ]

وَٱلَّذِينَ جَاهَدُوا فِينَا لَنَهْدِيَنَّهُمْ سُبُلَنَا and those who do jihad in OUR cause , surely WE Will certainly Guide them to OUR Paths... ( Translation attempt for selected words from The Qur'an 29:69 )

12 (w) . The Arabic preposition فِى fi is also used to indicate
assigning a reason - in consequence of which something is done. 

[ in consequence of , because of ]

لَامَهُ فِى ذَٰلِكَ he blamed him in consequence of / because of that. 

13 (n) . Since Arabic preposition فِى fi is often used to indicate
in a place or in a time, sometimes on is used instead of in while translating into English since in English some phrases are usually conveyed using on but can be conveyed using in also in most cases.
For example place is paper in which the act of writing happens. He wrote in the paper or he wrote on the paper. In both these cases the paper is a place in which the act of writing happened.

[ in , on ]

كَتَبَ فِى ٱلْوَرَقَةِ he wrote in / on the paper. 

14 . To study this particle further in many other books read the pages for this particle in Arabic Particles Tool . Also to see other posts in Arabic Particles Meanings series.

References: When multiple references mentioned for a point, it means material selected from all quoted references more from some and less from others and all quoted references do not necessarily agree on everything. Material is not exactly copied but based on the reference quoted and I have made additions, editions & changes where required :
w = Wright Arabic Grammar English
h = Howell Arabic Grammar English
l = Lane's Lexicon
n = New indication by me
a = Arabic Almanac books
p = Arabic Particles Tool books
m = Sharh of Miatu Amil .

Arabic has been typed using the free and detailed Arabic keyboard, latest live version of which is available at:
Online Arabic Keyboard to Type Arabic Directly using English Keyboard with 7 Arabic Web Fonts .

23 November 2016

Learn Arabic Word Sidq صِدْق Meaning

Learn Arabic Word Sidq صِدْق core meaning shades
Learn Arabic Word Sidq

Root : ص د ق
Pattern : فِعْل
Word : صِدْق

Firm / steady / strong / robust / sound
internally, externally and in reality (e.g. when put to the test).

In accordance / fitting with truth / reality / fact and
having consistency / agreement
between inside (intention, belief) and outside (speech, actions) and reality (what is the fact of the matter or what is actually the case),
between heart and tongue and reality.

Agreement of what is said with what is conceived in the mind and also with what reality is.
Accomplishing in reality what one has said and conceived in mind.

Not only believing and saying but doing accordingly also.
Performing to potential / skill / claim .

Last edited: 23-November-2016.

Also check other posts in the Arabic Words Core Meanings Series
To study this root further, type Sdq in Arabic Roots Quick Study Tool

20 November 2016

Arabic Particles : Learn Arabic Preposition عَنْ An

Learn Arabic Preposition عَنْ An meaning shades and usage.

See Arabic Particles Meanings series to learn Arabic particles and related words meanings.
Also see Arabic Particles Quick Study Tool.

Last edited on :  5 December 2016

1 (l,h,w,m) . The Arabic preposition عَنْ An is used to indicate
Passage or transition (sensibly or virtually) from the thing mentioned directly after it i.e. its genitive and distance from it. What has passed and became at a distance from its genitive.

[ from , off , away from , at a distance from ]

رَمَيْتُ عَنِ ٱلْقَوْسِ I shot off / from / away from the bow.
رَغِبَ عَنْهُ he desired to be away from it.
جَلَسَ عَنْ يَمِينِهِ he sat at a distance from his right hand.

2 (w) . The Arabic preposition عَنْ An is used to indicate
distance from, motion away from, departure from a place or from beside a person.

[ from , off , away from , at a distance from ]

Above point examples valid for this point also.

3 (w) . The Arabic preposition عَنْ An is also used for
marking the distance.

[ at a distance of ]

عَنْ خَمْسِينَ فَرْسَخًا at a distance of 50 parasangs (a measure of length).

4 (w) . The Arabic preposition عَنْ An is also used to indicate
the source from which something proceeds. Hence it shows:
i. The authority for any statement, tradition etc.
ii. The source cause from which an effect proceeds.

[ from , on the authority of , of ]

رَوَىٰ عَنْ فُلَانٍ he related from / on the authority of such a one.

5 (h,l) . The Arabic preposition عَنْ An is also used to indicate
cause

[ from , because of ]

قُلْتُ هَٰذَا عَنْ عِلْمٍ I said this from / because of knowledge.

6 (w) . The Arabic preposition عَنْ An is also used
after verbs denoting flight, avoidance, abstinence, caution, self-defense, forbidding & hindering, guarding & setting free etc.

[ from , away from ]

هَرَبَ عَنْهُ he fled from it.
وَ يَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ ٱلْمُنْكَرِ and preventing / debarring from the disapproved / unrecognized. (attempted translation of words from The Qur'an 3:104)

7 (w) . The Arabic preposition عَنْ An is also used to indicate
doing something (e.g. fighting or paying) for or on behalf of another.

[ on behalf of ] ( in place of , for ) 

يُقَاتِلُ عَنْهُ he did mortal combat on behalf of him.
حَمَلَ عَنْهُ كَذَا وَ كَذَا دِرْهَمًا he bore on behalf of / in place of / for him so and so many dirhams.

8 (w) . The Arabic preposition عَنْ An is also used
after verbs denoting informing, uncovering, removing, opening, revealing, asking & answering; for in these verbs there lies the idea of removal of a covering, real or figurative.

[ from , regarding , about ]

سَأَلَ عَنْهُ he asked regarding / about it.
كَشَفَ عَنْهُ ضُرُّهُ he removed from him his affliction.

9 (n) . The Arabic preposition عَنْ An is also used to indicate
something regarding or about its genitive.

[ regarding , about , concerning , from ]

رَضِيَ عَنْهُ he is well pleased regarding / about / from him.

10 (w) . The Arabic preposition عَنْ An is also used
after verbs denoting abandonment or neglect, and the ability to dispense with one thing because of the possession of another; because in them is implied the notion of turning away.

[ from , away from ]

صَفَحَ عَنْهُم he turned away from them
شَغَلَهُ ذَٰلِكَ عَنِ ٱلْفِكْرَةِ فِى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ إِلَّا فِيهِ that busied him away from / from the employment of thinking in everything except in it.
بَخِلَ عَنْ نَفْسِهِ he withheld from himself.

11 (w) . The Arabic preposition عَنْ An is also used
after verbs signifying to leave one behind or to surpass one.

[ from ]

فَضَلَ عَنْهُ he exceeded / surpassed from him.

12 (w,l,n) . The Arabic preposition عَنْ An is also used to indicate
after (usually relating to time) . For distance, we sometimes use at a distance of, at a distance from etc. and relating to time, we can use after a duration of . 

[ after , after a duration of ]

عَمَّا قَلِيلٍ after a little (while) OR after a duration of a little (while) OR after a little duration

13 (h,l,n) . The Arabic preposition عَنْ An is also used to indicate
using a thing as an aid or instrument.

[ off , from , away from ]

رَمَيْتُ عَنِ ٱلْقَوْسِ I shot off / from / away from the bow.

14 (w)(n) . To differentiate between مِنْ and عَنْ which are 2 different prepositions with related meanings, according to some
مِنْ is used for what is near while عَنْ is used for what is remote.
According to some
After the verbs for taking, borrowing etc مِنْ is used for transportable objects e.g. coins while عَنْ is used for others e.g. knowledge.
Another way to contrast the 2 is that
مِنْ is for beginning of extent (originating from etc.) while عَنْ is for transferring or passing over from (passing from, passing beyond or transferring from etc.)
Such opinions may be valid in some cases but are not proven in all examples, so can be kept in mind as an opinion, but not as a fixed rule. All the established meaning shades of both should be studied and assigned accordingly based on context and situation.

15 (w, h, l) . Note that عَنْ is also sometimes used as a noun signifying side . In such cases it is usually used along with مِنْ and in rarer cases along with عَلَىٰ

[ side ]

مِنْ عَنْ يَمِينِي  from the side of my right hand. From my right hand side .
عَلَىٰ عَنْ يَمِينِي  on the side of my right hand. On my right hand side .

16 (n) . According to some عَنْ is sometimes used in a similar meaning shade to بِ or to فِى or to عَلَىٰ or to مِنْ or to some other preposition, but a closer examination shows that still there is a difference in meaning shades, and due to context, one may assume the meaning shade is of some other particle which is more often used in such contexts, but on a closer examination, a meaning shade closer the the core meaning shades of عَنْ seems more accurate. e.g.
عَنْ vs مِنْ can be understood better after reading both prepositions in detail, since meaning shades are close. Many times from is used to translate both prepositions. But once one has the core meanings in mind, he can understand the subtle differences of using one over the other in a context.

عَنْ vs بِ can be better understood in a similar context with following example:
does not speak from whim (more focus on from where it is transferring from or caused from) vs does not speak with whim (more focus on the quality with which it is being said ) .
Another example where it is alleged that عَنْ has been used in the sense of بِ without 1st checking in detail the fact that both have been used 1 time each with حَفِيّ in The Qur'an, giving a different meaning shade to حَفِيّ when it used with each of the 2 according to almost all translators. 
حَفِيٌّ عَنْهَا used in The Qur'an 7:187 and بِي حَفِيًّا used in The Qur'an 19:47. You can see this in detail using Qur'an Ayat Navigators specially Qur'an Ayat Navigator 2 and Qur'an Ayat Navigator 5 .

عَنْ vs فِى can be better understood in a similar context with following example:
Do not turn away from remembrance vs do not slacken in remembrance.

عَنْ vs عَلَىٰ can be better understood in a similar context with following example:
Exceeds from (more focus on going beyond or passing from another in something) vs exceeds over (more focus on going over or above another in something). 

17 . To study this particle further in many other books read the pages for this particle in
Arabic Particles Tool . Also to see other posts in Arabic Particles Meanings series.

18 . The book دراسات لأسلوب القرآن الكريم available for quick study on Arabic Particles Tool books has also been used in researching the usage of عَنْ in The Qur'an.  

References: When multiple references mentioned for a point, it means material selected from all quoted references more from some and less from others and all quoted references do not necessarily agree on everything. Material is not exactly copied but based on the reference quoted and I have made additions, editions & changes where required :
w = Wright Arabic Grammar English
h = Howell Arabic Grammar English
l = Lane's Lexicon
n = New indication by me
a = Arabic Almanac books
p = Arabic Particles Tool books
m = Sharh of Miatu Amil .

Arabic has been typed using the free and detailed Arabic keyboard, latest live version of which is available at:
Online Arabic Keyboard to Type Arabic Directly using English Keyboard with 7 Arabic Web Fonts .

20 September 2016

Arabic Particles : Arabic Preposition إِلَىٰ ila

Meaning shades and usage of the Arabic Particles : The Arabic Preposition إِلَىٰ ila
See Arabic Particles Meanings series for other particles and related words.
Also see Arabic Particles Quick Study Tool .

Last edited on : 5 December 2016 

1 (w)(l)(n) . The Arabic preposition ila إِلَىٰ is used to indicate
Motion to or towards a place / thing / person
or direction / inclination / turning to or towards 
a place / thing / person / quality / state . 

[ to , towards , as far as ] ( inclined, directed, turned: to or towards ) 

جَآءَ إِلَى ٱلْمَدِينَةِ he came to the city
نَظَرَ إِلَيْهِ he looked towards him
مَالَ إِلَيْهِ he or it inclined towards him or it
Since in some contexts inclination or direction is implied, when translating, we may add words like inclined or directed as in below example.
لَبُّهُ إِلَى ٱلْحُمْقِ his heart is inclined towards foolishness

2 (w)(l) . The Arabic preposition ila إِلَىٰ is used to indicate
The point in time till, until or to which something lasts

[ till , until , to ]

ثُمَّ أَتِمُّوا ٱلصِّيَامَ إِلَى ٱللَّيْلِ then complete the fast to / till / until the night 

3 (w) . The Arabic preposition ila إِلَىٰ is
used in the opposite role to the Arabic preposition مِنْ in statements. 

[ to ] 

مِنَ ٱلْمَهْدِ إِلَى ٱللَّحْدِ from the cradle to the grave. (i.e. from the time of being in the cradle to the time of being in the grave, for the entire worldly life) .

4 (w) . The Arabic preposition ila إِلَىٰ is also  
sometimes used in the opposite role to the Arabic preposition عَنْ as in below examples

[ to ] 

اِنْقَطَعَ عَنْهُ he became cut off from him, he severed himself from him vs اِنْقَطَعَ إِلَيْهِ he became cut off to him, he severed himself to him (i.e. he became cut off or severed himself from remaining things to him exclusively) .

إِلَيْكَ عَنِّي (keep) to yourself off me. To your self away from me. Stand off!  

5 (w) . The Arabic preposition ila إِلَىٰ is also
used with قَرِيب near and similar words which convey the idea of approach or approximation.

[ to ]

e.g. usage of قَرِيبٌ إِلَىٰ near to vs بَعِيدٌ عَنْ far from
إِلَىٰ جَانِبِهِ to his side

6 (w)(l) . The Arabic preposition ila إِلَىٰ is also used in phrases like

[ to ]

إِلَى غَيْرِ ذَٰلِكَ to other than that
إِلَى ٱلْآخِرِهِ to the end of it 

7 (l)(h)(w) . The Arabic preposition ila إِلَىٰ is used to indicate
the limit of the act or the ending of extent in place or time , temporal or local and governs in the genitive case the last part or ending point or time. The starting limit mentioned after مِنْ and the ending limit mentioned after إِلَىٰ are usually not included but in some contexts the limits are also included.

[ to , till , up to ] 

قَرَأْتُ ٱلْقُرْآنَ مِنْ أَوَّلِهِ إِلَىٰ آخِرِهِ I recited The Qur'an from its beginning to / till its end. In this context, beginning and end are included.

The 2 options can be further explained as:
i. You reached some place but didn't enter it e.g. you reached the city but did not enter in it.
ii. You entered some place, and its range includes the beginning of the limit and the farthest part thereof, but not beyond it e.g. you entered a city, now once you are in the city you can be at the beginning, somewhere in between or at the extreme in the city, in all these cases you are in the city.
خَرَجَ مِنَ ٱلْكُوفَةِ إِلَى ٱلشَّامِ he went forth from Koofah to Shaam. Now there are 2 options, he reached Shaam but did not enter it, or he entered Shaam.

8 (m)(l) . According to some

[ to , up to , till , until ] 

When that which comes after إِلَىٰ happens to be of the same kind or general nature or genus as that which comes before it, the preposition usually has an inclusive signification.
فَاغْسِلُوا وُجُوهَكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إِلَى الْمَرَافِقِ then wash your faces and your hands to / up to the elbows.
When that which comes after إِلَىٰ happens to be of a different kind or class or genus to that which comes before it, the preposition usually has an exclusive signification.
ثُمَّ أَتِمُّوا ٱلصِّيَامَ إِلَى ٱللَّيْلِ then you complete the fast to / till / until the night

9 (l)(h) . The Arabic preposition ila إِلَىٰ is also used 
to show the grammatical agency of the noun governed by it
after a verb of wonder or after a noun of surpassing importing love or hatred.

[ to ]

مَا أَحَبَّهُ إِلَيَّ how beloved is it to me! (Literally: what has caused it to be beloved to me!)
مَا أَبْغَضَهُ إِلَيَّ how hateful is it to me! (Literally: what has caused it to be hateful to me!)
ذَٰلِكَ أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ that is more beloved to me
ذَٰلِكَ أَبْغَضُ إِلَيَّ that is more hateful to me 

10 (w)(n) . The Arabic preposition ila إِلَىٰ is sometimes used to indicate that
one thing is added / joined / augmented / attached to another. When we say this to that and the context indicates addition or joining or augmentation or attachment etc. instead of movement to, or inclination to etc., then to clarify in translation we may add words like in addition to , instead of just translating with to. Sometimes in such cases, some verb indicating addition, augmentation or joining like زَادَ or ضَمَّ is used and sometimes these verbs are not used and context is enough to indicate that إِلَىٰ has been used in this sense. Though we may retain this in translation also with just the to and let the context itself clarify the sense in which this to has been used or we may translate with in addition to etc.  

[ to , in addition to ]

ضُمَّ هٰذَا إِلَىٰ ذَٰلِكَ add this to that
زَادُوا حِكْمَةً إِلَىٰ حِكْمَتِهِمْ they have added wisdom to their wisdom. 
لَا تَأْكُلُوا أَمْوَالَهُمْ إِلَىٰ أَمْوَالِكُمْ Don't eat their wealth in addition to your wealth. (Translating like this indicates keeping the 2 wealth sets separate but also consuming from their wealth by eating their wealth also.)
Don't eat their wealth to your wealth. (Translating like this indicates putting their wealth into your wealth by eating their wealth into your wealth)

11 (w)(n)(l) . The Arabic preposition ila إِلَىٰ sometimes signifies
up to (reaching up to, entrusted to etc.) , belonging to, referable to. 

[ up to , to ] ( belonging to, entrusted to, referable to ) 

ذَٰلِكَ إِلَيْهِ that is up to him. That is entrusted to him.
وَ هُوَ إِلَىٰ بَنِي إِسْرَآئِيلَ and he belonged to the children of Israil.
وَٱلْأَمْرُ إِلَيْكِ and the command is referable to you.

12 (l) . The Arabic preposition ila إِلَىٰ sometimes signifies
comparison

[ to , compared to ]

عِلْمِي إِلَىٰ عِلْمِهِ كَٱلْقَطْرَةِ فِى ٱلْبَحْرِ My knowledge to or compared to his knowledge is like a drop in the sea.

13 (l) . The original letters in إِلَىٰ are ا ل و  .

14 . To study this particle further in many other books read the pages for this particle in
Arabic Particles Tool . Also to see other posts in Arabic Particles Meanings series.

15 . The book دراسات لأسلوب القرآن الكريم available for quick study on Arabic Particles Tool books has also been used in investigating the alleged usage of إِلَىٰ in other prepositions' meaning shades along with my own research.  

References: When multiple references mentioned for a point, it means material selected from all quoted references more from some and less from others and all quoted references do not necessarily agree on everything. Material is not exactly copied but based on the reference quoted and I have made additions, editions & changes where required :
w = Wright Arabic Grammar English
h = Howell Arabic Grammar English
l = Lane's Lexicon
n = New indication by me
a = Arabic Almanac books
p = Arabic Particles Tool books
m = Sharh of Miatu Amil .

Arabic has been typed using the free and detailed Arabic keyboard, latest live version of which is available at:
Online Arabic Keyboard to Type Arabic Directly using English Keyboard with 7 Arabic Web Fonts .

13 September 2016

Arabic Particles : Arabic Preposition مِنْ Min

Meaning shades and usage of the Arabic Particles : The Arabic Preposition مِنْ min
See Arabic Particles Meanings series for other particles and related words.
Also see Arabic Particles Quick Study Tool.

Last edited on : 5 December 2016
1 (w,h) . The Arabic preposition min مِنْ is used to indicate
the beginning of extent or commencement of the limit in space or time or simply the commencement of the limit.  

[ from, since]

مِنَ ٱلْمَسْجِدِ from the masjid.
مِنَ ٱلْيَوْمِ since/from the day.

2 (w) . The Arabic preposition min مِنْ is used to indicate
the local point of departure, departure from a place. The point or place at which an act or state has commenced.  

[ from , out of ]

سَقَطَ مِن يَّدِهَا it fell from her hand.

3 (n,h) .  The point of departure can also be physical or logical and other than a place literally e.g. person, mind etc.

[from]
 
إِنَّهُ مِنْ سُلَيْمَانَ indeed it is from Sulayman.

4 (w) . The Arabic preposition min مِنْ is also used to signify 
through or by something.  

[ through ]( by )

دَخَلَ مِنَ ٱلْبَابِ he came in through the door.

5 (w) . The Arabic preposition min مِنْ is used to indicate
temporal point of departure. The point or moment in time at which an act or state has commenced.

[ from, since ]
 
مِنَ ٱلْمَهْدِ إِلَى ٱللَّحْدِ from the cradle to the grave. (i.e. from the time of being in the cradle to the time of being in the grave, for the entire worldly life)

6 (w) . Hence, min مِنْ is connected with verbs which convey the idea of separation, departure, holding oneself or another aloof from any person or thing, liberating, preserving, fleeing, frightening away,  forbidding etc.

[from]

اَلدُّنْيَا تَمْنَعُ مِنَ ٱلْخَيْرِ the world holds (us) back from the good. 

7 (w,h) .  The Arabic preposition min مِنْ is also used to indicate  
exchange, replacement, substitute and is usually translated in this case as in exchange for, instead of, in place of. The sign for this meaning shade is that it is possible to replace it by بَدَل substitute/replacement.

[ in exchange for, instead of, in place of ]

أَرَضِيتُمْ بِٱلْحَيَاةِ ٱلدُّنْيَا مِنَ ٱلْآخِرَةِ are you contented with the life of this world in exchange for the Hereafter?

8 (w) .  The Arabic preposition min مِنْ is also used to indicate   
the causal point of departure, the origin and source of a thing. The usage of مِنْ in this case is to assign the cause/reason.

[ because of, in consequence of, from, proceeding from ]( out of  )

ذَٰلِكَ مِن نَّبَأَ جَآأَنِي that is in consequence of / because of / proceeding from / out of information that reached me.

9 (w) . In speaking of persons مِنْ أَجْلِ is mostly used instead of مِنْ and often in other cases also. 

[ on account of, because of ] ( for the sake of  )

اَلَّتِي تَبْكِي مِنْ أَجْلِهَا she on account of whom you weep.

10 (h,w) . The Arabic preposition min مِنْ is also used to indicate
the noun mentioned before مِنْ surpassing or exceeding the noun mentioned after مِنْ usually with a comparative adjective mentioned immediately before the  مِنْ .

[ than, from ]

زَيْدٌ أَفْضَلُ مِنْ سُفْيَانٍ Zaid is more excellent than Sufyan. (Zaid has surpassed Sufyan in excellence)

11 (w) . Min مِنْ with its complement is occasionally placed in poetry before the comparative adjective. In prose this inversion takes place only with an interrogative pronoun or a word in the construct state before an interrogative pronoun.

[ than , from ]

لَا شَيْءَ مِنْهُنَّ أَكْسَلُ nothing is lazier than them.
مِمَّنْ أَنْتَ خَيْرٌ from/than whom are you better? (With an interrogative pronoun)
مِنْ أَبِي أَيِّهِمْ أَنْتَ أَفْضَلُ from/than the father of which of them are you better? 

12 (w,h) . The Arabic preposition min مِنْ is also used to indicate
the difference or distinction between 2 persons or things which are compared or contrasted with one another e.g. this from that. In this case مِنْ is prefixed to the 2nd of the 2 compared entities. 

[ from ]

هَلْ تَعْرِفُ ٱلْجَيِّدَ مِنَ ٱلرَّدِيِّ do you know the good from the bad?

13 (w) . If an object is compared with itself in a different respect, the appropriate pronominal suffix has to be attached to مِنْ .

[ than ]

هُمْ لِلْكُفْرِ يَوْمَئِذٍ أَقْرَبُ مِنْهُمْ لِلْإِيمَانِ They to covering up / denying / being ungrateful that day were closer than they to belief / faith.

14 (w) . Sometimes, the preposition مِنْ is annexed to the latter of the 2 objects, instead of the person or thing which is compared with himself or itself in respect of these 2 objects.

[ than ]

صَارَ يُقَاتِلُهُمْ بِٱلْعَصَا أَقْوَىٰ مِنَ ٱسِّلَاحِ he began striving to kill them with the staff more sturdily than (with) the weapons. He began striving to kill them more sturdily with the staff than the weapons.

15 (h) . The Arabic preposition min مِنْ is also used to indicate  
partition. The sign for this meaning shade is that it is possible to replace it by بَعْض some (of) /part (of) / portion (of). 

[ from, of, part of, some of, portion of ]

حَتَّىٰ تُنْفِقُوا مِمَّا تُحِبُّونَ until you spend from / of / some of / part of / portion of  what you love.

16 (w) . The Arabic preposition min مِنْ is also used to indicate
The relation which subsists between the part & the whole, the species & the genus. Hence it also serves to indicate the relation between the article and the material made of it

[ of, part of, portion of, one of ]

لِبَاسُهُ مِنَ ٱلْحَرِيرِ his garment is of silk.
لَيْسَ مِنَ ٱلْعِلْمِ فِى شَيْءٍ he is in no part of knowledge (i.e. he has nothing to do with knowledge) .
When مِنْ indicates a part of a whole, it is said to be used لِلتَّبْعِيضِ to indicate division into parts; when it indicates the parts of which a whole is composed, it is used لِلتَّرْكِيبِ to indicate composition.

17 (w) . When مِنْ precedes (comes before) a definite noun, especially in the plural, it often indicates an indefinite quantity or number.

[ from, of, some of, a number of ]

شَرِبْتُ مِنَ ٱلْمَآءِ I drank from / of / some of the water.

18 (w) . Often مِنْ preceded by an indefinite noun, is followed by the definite plural of the same noun in order to signify that a person or thing is wholly undefined.

[ from ]

مَلِكٌ مِنَ ٱلْمُلُوكِ a king from the kings. A certain king.

19 (w) . When an indefinite noun denoting a state or condition is followed by مِنْ with the same noun defined in the singular, it signifies a high degree of that state or condition.

[ of ]

عَجَبٌ مِنَ ٱلْعَجَبِ a wonder of wonders. 

20 (h,m) . The Arabic preposition min مِنْ can also be used for
explanation of genus, being replaceable by اَلَّذِي and coming after مَا what or مَهْمَا whatever or something else.

[ of , i.e. , that is , namely ]

فَاجْتَنِبُوا ٱلرِّجْسَ مِنَ ٱلْأَوْثَانِ so avoid the uncleanliness of / that is / namely the idols. Here the uncleanliness of what? is explained or specified after مِنْ i.e. the idols. Replacing by اَلَّذِي will be
فَاجْتَنِبُوا ٱلرِّجْسَ ٱلَّذِي هُوَ ٱلْأَوْثَانُ so avoid the uncleanliness that is the idols

21 (w) . The Arabic preposition min مِنْ can also be used to indicate
the definition or explanation of a general or universal by a special or particular term, the latter being one of the several objects that make up the former.

[ of , i.e. , that is , namely ]

لَا يَحْصُلُ مَقْصُودُهُمْ مِنَ ٱلْعِلْمِ their object of aim and pursuit i.e. / that is / namely the knowledge was not achieved.

22 (w) . The Arabic preposition min مِنْ is constantly used after the indefinite pronoun مَا what, and مَهْمَا whatever, which cannot be construed with a genitive. So after  مَا and مَهْمَا a verb is used, and after the verb مِنْ is used along with the genitive (i.e. the word in the genitive case). In some cases this مِنْ after مَا may be considered as the partitive min.

[ from, of ]

مَا ذَهَبَ مِنَ ٱلْمَالِ what has gone from the wealth. (The wealth that has been spent)

23 (w) .  The Arabic preposition min مِنْ is also used to indicate
 The specification of the general term .

[ of , from ]

لِزَيْدٍ مِتْرَانِ مِنْ قُطْنٍ for Zaid are 2 meters of cotton.
without مِنْ it will be
لِزَيْدٍ مِتْرَانِ قُطْنًا for Zaid are 2 meters cotton.

24 (w)(h)(n) . The Arabic preposition min مِنْ is also sometimes used to designate
the person or thing in which a certain quality or a certain thing's quality or qualities are prominent.

[ from ]

لَقِيْتُ مِنْهُ أَسَدًا I met from (meeting) him a lion.

25 (w) .  After negative particles & after interrogatives put in a negative sense مِنْ prefixed to an indefinite noun means none at all, not one, no one. In such cases مِنْ alone can usually be translated using any.

[ any ]

مَا جَآءَنِي مِنْ أَحَدٍ there didn't come to me any one. No one came to be.
هَلْ مِن مَّزِيدٍ is there any addition/increase?

26 (h) . The Arabic preposition min مِنْ is also used for
 Designation of generality

[ any ]

مَا جَآءَنِي مِن رَّجُلٍ there didn't come to me any man
Without مِنْ it will be
مَا جَآءَنِي رَجُلٌ there didn't come to me a man (negation of unity, i.e.  an unspecified man didn't come) . There didn't come to me man (negation of genus, i.e. the species of man didn't come) . 

27 (h) . The Arabic preposition min مِنْ is also used for
 Corroboration of generality

[ any ]

مَا جَآءَنِي مِنْ أَحَدٍ there didn't come to me any one.
مَا جَآءَنِي مِنْ دَيَّارٍ there didn't come to me any inhabitant.
After negation أَحَدٌ and دَيَّارٌ are forms of generality and the مِنْ has corroborated or strengthened this generality. Without مِنْ it will be
مَا جَآءَنِي أَحَدٌ / دَيَّارٌ there didn't come to me a one / an inhabitant.

28 (h)(n) . In above 2 points مِنْ is said to be redundant by some, though clearly, it is adding a definite meaning shade which can be conveyed in English to some extent using any . Usual conditions for this usage  in above 2 sorts are :

(i). Precedence of negation, prohibition or interrogation. (ii). Indterminateness of its genitive. (iii). Its genitive being an agent, object or inchoative/subject/ مُبْتَدَأ .
وَمَا تَسْقُطُ مِن وَّرَقَةٍ إِلَّا يَعْلَمُهَا ...and does not fall any leaf except that HE (i.e. ALLAH) knows it....
لَا يَقُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ Don't stand any one.
هَلْ تَرَىٰ مِنْ فُطُورٍ Do you see any flaw?

29 (m,h,a,p) . The Arabic preposition min مِنْ is sometimes used in a peculiar sense to indicate
Extreme, extremity, extent, limit, bound, utmost e.g. extreme for sight, i.e. a place of beginning and ending of sight, e.g. a place of beginning of sight from someone and ending of sight to the same. On a closer examination, it will be found that in this case also the meaning shade of from appears more valid as compared to till or to, but depending on context and intent of speaker, in some rare cases 2nd opinion may be valid.

[from]

رَأَيْتُهُ مِنْ ذَالِكَ ٱلْمَوْضِعِ I saw him from that place (my sighting of him starting from that place) (opinion 1) . I saw him to/till that place (to the very extent of vision) (opinion 2)  . 

30 (w) . The Arabic preposition min مِنْ is also used to indicate  
the distance from a place, person, thing, particularly after words which signify proximity.

[ to, from ]

مَا هٰذَا ٱلْغُلَامُ مِنْكَ what (relation) is this lad to you?
مَا أَنَا مِنْ دَدٍ ولَا ٱلدَّدُ مِنِّي I have no concern with diversion, nor has diversion any concern with me. (Literally: ) I am not from diversion, nor is diversion from me. 

31 (h)(n) . The Arabic preposition min مِنْ is also used to indicate
connection

[ of , from ] ( connected with )

بَعْضُهُم مِنْۢ بَعْضٍ They are from / of one another. They are connected with one another. Some of them are connected with some. 

32 (h)(n) .  The Arabic preposition min مِنْ is also used to indicate  
agreement 

[ of , from ] ( agrees with )

فُلَانٌ مِّنَّا Such a one is of us (in agreeing with us) .

33 (w)(n) .  The Arabic preposition min مِنْ is also
used after verbs meaning to sell, to give in marriage etc.

[ to , through , from ]

بَاعَ مِنْهُ فَرَسًا he sold to him a horse. More literally:
He sold through him a horse, i.e. he accomplished the selling of a horse through him (by selling it to him). He sold from him a horse, i.e. he accomplished the selling of a horse from him (by selling it to him). 

34 (w)(n) . In the adverbial expressions as in below examples مِنْ signifies in a part of, in a time from , of , from etc. but in English may also be translated using in, during , at , on etc.

[ from , of , in a part of , in a time from ] ( in , during , on , at )

مِنَ ٱلْغَدِ in a part of / in a time from / in / during tomorrow.
مِنَ ٱلَّيْلِ in a part of / in a time from / in / during / at the night.
خَرَجَ مِن يَّوْمِهِ he went out in a part of / in a time from / on the same day.

35 (h)(w) . Min مِنْ prefixed to قَبْلَ before, and بَعْدَ after, denotes beginning of extent according to the majority, but is redundant according to Ibn Malik. In this context مِنْ usually specifies in a portion of the space of time or simply in a portion of time .

[ in a portion of , from ]

مِنْ قَبْلِ in a portion of time before. From before. Before.
مِنْۢ بَعْدِ in a portion of time after. From after. After. 

36 (h) . Preposition مِنْ is exclusively distinguished by governing the following in the genitive 
قَبْلَ بَعْدَ عِنْدَ لَدَى لَدُنْ مَعَ بَلْهَ
and also عَنْ عَلَىٰ when used as nouns.

37 (n) .  According to some مِنْ is sometimes used in a similar meaning shade to عَنْ or to فِى or to بِ or to عَلَىٰ or to some other preposition, but a closer examination shows that still there is a difference in meaning shades, and due to context, one may assume the meaning shade is of some other particle which is more often used in such contexts, but on a closer examination, a meaning shade closer the the core meaning shades of مِنْ seems more accurate. e.g.
مِنْ vs عَنْ can be understood better after reading both prepositions in detail, since meaning shades are close. Many times from is used to translate both prepositions. But once one has the core meanings in mind, he can understand the subtle differences of using one over the other in a context.

 مِنْ vs عَلَىٰ can be better understood in a similar context with following example:
Help some one from some one else (more focus on defense) vs help some one over some one else (more focus on attack) .

 مِنْ vs فِى can be better understood in a similar context with following example:
In a part of or in a time from tomorrow vs in or during tomorrow.

 مِنْ vs بِ can be better understood in a similar context with following example:
Looking from a furtive glance vs looking with a furtive glance.
(furtive glance: in this a person contracts the eyelids over the main portion of the eyes and then we can say (depending on which preposition is used) he looks from the remaining part of the eyes or looks with the remaining part of the eyes. On 1st the focus is on "from where" and on the 2nd the focus is on "with what" )  

38 (w) . For compound prepositions see this section on Wright Arabic Grammar specially see the مِنْ compounds. 

39 . To study this particle further in many other books read the pages for this particle in
Arabic Particles Tool . Also to see other posts in Arabic Particles Meanings series.

References: When multiple references mentioned for a point, it means material selected from all quoted references more from some and less from others and all quoted references do not necessarily agree on everything. Material is not exactly copied but based on the reference quoted and I have made additions, editions & changes where required :
w = Wright Arabic Grammar English
h = Howell Arabic Grammar English
n = New indication by me
a = Arabic Almanac books
p = Arabic Particles Tool books .

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