27 July 2016

Arabic Quadriliteral Verb Forms - fa'fa'a fa'lala if'alalla فَعْفَعَ فَعْلَلَ اِفْعَلَلَّ BQ1 QI QIV

Meaning shades of Arabic Quadriliteral Verb Forms BQI, QI and QIV

Also see posts on Other Arabic Verb Forms

This post is on The Meanings of Arabic Quadriliteral Verb Forms BQI فَعْفَعَ fa'fa'a, QI فَعْلَلَ fa'lala and QIV اِفْعَلَلَّ if'alalla.   
Last edited on : 28-July-2016

Arabic Quadriliteral Verb Form BQI  fa'fa'a فَعْفَعَ


1 (w)(n) . Arabic Quadriliteral verb form فَعْفَعَ fa'fa'a BQI is usually formed like this. A biliteral root, expressing a sound or movement or action, is repeated to indicate the repetition of that sound or movement or action.
زَلْزَلَهُ He put him or it into a state of violent motion or convulsion.


2 (n) . From a biliteral root , a triliteral root can be formed by repeating the 2nd letter
i.e  ف ع to ف ع ع and a quadriliteral root can be formed by repeating both the letters
i.e ف ع to ف ع ف ع and
in terms of verbs, we can say that from a biliteral root , a triliteral verb can be formed by repeating the 2nd letter
i.e فع to فَعَعَ or فَعِعَ or فَعُعَ to فَعَّ and a quadriliteral verb can be formed by repeating both the letters
i.e فع to فَعْفَعَ and a verb is always either triliteral or quadriliteral. A verb from a biliteral root can only be formed using 1 of the above 2 options.


3 (n) . Various books label this kind of verb فَعْفَعَ also as a فَعْلَلَ verb, but in reality the 2 are different types and meaning shades are also different. The 1st one is a fixed form in which 1st and 3rd root letters are necessarily the same and 2nd and 4th root letters are necessarily the same. The 2nd can even can have 4 different letters.


Arabic Quadriliteral Verb Form QI فَعْلَلَ


1 (w) . Arabic Quadriliteral verb form فَعْلَلَ fa'lala QI is usually formed like this. A 4th letter, is prefixed or affixed to, or inserted in the middle of a triliteral verbal form.
(n) . This can also be said for quadriliteral roots, i.e. one of the ways in which a quadriliteral root is formed is that a 4th letter, is prefixed or affixed to, or inserted in the middle of a triliteral root. 
This can also be said for quadriliteral nouns, i.e. one of the ways in which a quadriliteral noun is formed is that a 4th letter, is prefixed or affixed to, or inserted in the middle of a triliteral noun.
Any 1 of the letters of فَعْلَلَ can be the additional letter that has been added to the 3 letter verb. The 2 ل are usually different letters but pattern is usually written as فَعْلَلَ as the only other option is to mention the additional letter by the actual letter.
Form I شَمَخَ he bore his head high, he elevated himself.
Form QI شَمْخَرَ he behaved haughtily and proudly. With ر added as the additional letter at the 4th place and its pattern can be represented by فَعْلَرَ or فَعْلَلَ . I prefer the 1st pattern in cases where the additional letter can be identified, as in this case.


2 (n) . Usually the additional letter is one of the following:
أ ا و ي ت س م ن ه ل ر
and the 4 letter quadriliteral verb or noun can also be represented by retaining these as the additional letter in the pattern. Form with usage of one of the letters أ ا و ي ت س م ن ه as the additional letter is called by various scholars as مُلْحَقٌّ بِٱالرُّبَاعِيّ or quasi quadriliteral.


3 (n) . Some quadriliteral roots, verbs and nouns are genuinely made using 4 letters, instead of being made by adding an additional letter to a triliteral root, verb or noun, e.g ضِفْدِع frog.
ضَفْدَعَ It (water) had ضَفَادِع frogs in it or became possessor of ضَفَادِع frogs.


4 (n). (Quasi) Quadriliteral verbs are also formed from nouns having triliteral roots with augmentative letter in their pattern.
From the noun شَيْطَان with root ش ي ط and pattern فَعْلَان a quasi quadriliteral verb شَيْطَنَ is formed which means he acted as a شَيْطَان and its pattern can be represented by فَعْلَنَ or فَعْلَلَ . I prefer the 1st pattern again. 


5 (n) . The measure of Arabic Quadriliteral Verb is similar to Arabic Triliteral Verb Form II . When Form II verb is analyzed, it is actually فَعْعَلَ and then it becomes فَعَّلَ while a quadriliteral verb فَعْلَلَ has a different 2nd and 3rd letter.


6 (n) . The Arabic Quadriliteral Verb فَعْلَلَ has more strength and meaning due to more letters as compared to a 3 letter verb.


7 (n) . The meaning shades of Arabic Quadriliteral Verb فَعْلَلَ differ from verb to verb since there are various possibilities.
a. If it is made by inserting an additional letter to a 3 letter verb, at which location is the additional letter inserted and which is the additional letter. Both these factors usually have a role in shaping the meaning shade.
b. If it is made from a 4 letter quadriliteral root or noun, then it has its unique meaning shade not linked to any triliteral verb.


8 (w) . Sometimes a statement is shortened into a 4 letter verb to indicate saying of that statement.
حَوْقَلَ he said لَا حَوْلَ وَلَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللّٰهِ .

9 (w)(n) . Same Arabic Quadriliteral Verb Form QI فَعْلَلَ can be intransitive in 1 context and transitive in another context. This explains the reason for the next point mentioned below.

10 (k)  Arabic Quadriliteral Verb Form QI فَعْلَلَ can come as مُطَاوِع of itself. 
(a) . مُطَاوِع is a verb whose (grammatical) agent receives the effect of the action of the agent of another verb.
(w) . The مُطَاوِع expresses the state into which the object of the action denoted by the verb of which it is مُطَاوِع is brought by that action, as its effect or result.
غَطْرَشَ الَّيْلُ بَصَرَهُ فَغَطْرَشَ The night darkened his sight so it became darkened.


11 (w)(n) . Doing something to or with or relating to the noun from the same root.e.g.

12 (k) . To indicate the subject or فَاعِل wearing or making the object or مَفْعُول wear the cloth indicated by the noun from the same root e.g سَرْبَلَهُ he clad him with a سِرْبَال shirt.

13 (k) . To indicate the subject or فَاعِل putting to its required purpose or use the thing or quality indicated in the word from the same root.

14 (k) . To indicate the subject or فَاعِل making the thing indicated in the word from the same root as that of the Quadriliteral verb e.g قَنْطَرَ he made a قَنْطَرَة bridge.

15 (k) . To indicate the subject or فَاعِل removing from the object or مَفْعُول the thing or quality indicated by the noun from the same root.


Arabic Quadriliteral Verb Form QIV اِفْعَلَلَّ


1 (w)(n) . QIV is intransitive, and expresses an extensively or intensively high degree of a state or quality.
اِطْمَأَنَّ he was or became completely still or in a complete and thorough state of rest, ease, quiet, calm, piece of mind and free from grief, sorrow, worry, fear.


2 (n) . It is closest to form XI of the triliterals, though most books mention Form IX but actually it is closest to form XI.


3 (n) . Form XI to Form QIV derivation can be done like this:
اِفْعَالَّ to اِفْعَأَلَّ to اِفْعَلَلَّ where the ل immediately after the ع in the pattern is usually the augmentative letter. Many times the augmentative letter is أ and pattern is اِفْعَأَلَّ and in this case it is a quasi quadriliteral verb.
In Lane's Lexicon, under root ط م ن the 1st of the mentioned opinions on اِطْمَأَنَّ is : "
اِطْمَأَنَّ is said by some to be originally [اِطْمَانَّ] like اِحْمَارَّ , (Mṣb,) as Esh-Shiháb states in the Expos. of the Shifè, (TA,) and to be pronounced with ء for the purpose of avoiding [the combination of] the two quiescent letters, (Mṣb, TA,) anomalously: (Mṣb:) ..."


4 (n) . Form IX to Form QIV derivation can be done like this:
اِفْعَلَّ to اِفْعَلَلَّ where the ل immediately after the ع in the pattern is usually the additional letter.

5 (n) . Form QIV derivation can be done from a quadriliteral root or verb by giving it pattern اِفْعَلَلَّ and in this case all the 4 letters represented by ف ع ل ل are root letters.


Note: Quadriliteral Verb Forms QII تَفَعْلَلَ and QIII اِفْعَنْلَلَ have not been used in The Qur'an and have not been discussed in this post since the 1st priority of Revive Arabic Blog and its Phase 1 targets Qur'an related topics only.


Important Note: 
Best examples for analyzing and verifying the level of applicability or non-applicability of above mentioned meaning shades and for finding additional meaning shades is by studying all occurrences of the Form in The Qur'an and for that you can check relevant examples for this Form in Pattern Wise Concordance PDF by visiting the post:
Pattern wise, Root wise & Letter wise Concordance of The Qur'an
& downloading the concordance documents freely. You can check relevant examples of most of the patterns used in the Qur'an by using concordance documents.

References: When multiple references mentioned for a point, it means material selected from all quoted references more from some and less from others and all quoted references do not necessarily agree on everything. Material is not exactly copied but based on the reference quoted and I have made additions, editions & changes where required :   

h = Howell Arabic Grammar English
w = Wright Arabic Grammar English
k = Aasaan Khaasiyyaat e abwaab Urdu
q = Qawaid Zaban e Qur'an Urdu
n = new indication by me.
a = Derived from other tools like arabic almanac or some other book. For this post (Lane's Lexicon)

Appendix 1: 
BQI : Selected portion from preface of Lane's Lexicon .
Words of three different classes, in which the radical letters are the same, but different in number, I place in the same article. The first of these classes consists of words of two radical letters; as بَلْ : the second class, of reduplicative triliteral-radical words, in which the first and second radical letters are the same as those of the first class, and the third the same as the second of that class; as بَلَّ and بَلٌّ and بَلَلٌ  &c.: and the third class, of reduplicative quadriliteral-radical words, in which the first and third radical letters are the same as the first of the first class, and the second and fourth the same as the second of that class; as بَلْبَلَ and بَلْبَلَةٌ and بِلْبَالٌ  &c. These three classes are included in the same article in all the best Arabic lexicons; and two reasons may be given for my following the same plan. One reason is similarity of signification. Words of the first and second corresponding classes very seldom exhibit an alliance in signification; but instances of such alliance in words of the first and third classes are less rare; and instances of alliance in signification in words of the second and third classes are very numerous. The other reason is, that such words are generally held to be derived from the same root. Some of the Arabian lexicologists hold that a word of the class of بَلَّ is a biliteral-radical word; so that the letters of its root are represented by فع: but most of them regard it as, absolutely, a triliteral-radical word; so that the letters of its root are represented by فعل . With respect to a word such as بَلْبَلَ, the opinion held by El-Farrà and others, and ascribed to El-Khaleel, is, that it is to be represented by فَعْفَعَ; so that the letters of its root are represented by فع: another opinion ascribed to El-Khaleel and his followers among the Baṣrees and Koofees, is, that it is to be represented by فَعْفَلَ; so that the letters of its root are represented by فعل; another, ascribed to Seebaweyh and his companions, is, that it is originally a word to be represented by فَعَّلَ, and that the third radical letter is changed, and made the same as the first; so that the letters of its root are represented by the same letters as if the word itself were to be represented by فَعْفَلَ: the opinion commonly obtaining among the Baṣrees is, that it is to be represented by فَعْلَلَ; so that the letters of its root are represented, in this case also, by فعل

Appendix 2:
Additional Notes: 
From this link
Extra Letters
Extra letters that are added to words are often indicative of the types of meanings they convey.

Base Letter Duplication
The verbal paradigm فَعَّلَ (i.e. form II) is achieved by doubling the middle base letter and one of its most prominent connotations is to indicate that an action has been done repeatedly. For example, the simple verb قَطَعَ means to cut, but the enhanced verb قَطَّعَ means to cut repeatedly (i.e. to chop). Notice that the multiplicity in the word has indicated on the multiplicity in the meaning.

Moreover, the paradigms اِفْعَلَّ (form IX) and اِفْعَالَّ (form XI) also have a doubling of a base letter and they afford the connotation of something happening a lot or repeatedly. For example, اِحْمَرَّ means to become very red or to blush and اِدْهَامَّ means to become dark green or black. Notice how the duplication of the base letters has indicated on the intensity and even the multiplicity of the meaning.

Similarly, the hyperbolic participle has many patterns. If we pry deep enough, we will notice that not all of these patterns give exactly the same sense of exaggeration to the root letters. The pattern فَعَّال (as well as فَعَّالَة) give the sense of doing something repeatedly to the extent that it becomes a habit, a profession, or the like. For example, رَحَّالَة means globetrotter (someone who travels repeatedly). Notice that here too the duplication of the base letter has indicated upon the duplication in the meaning.

This duplication doesn’t, in fact, have to be extra. 4-lettered words with letters one and three the same and two and four the same (form BQ I i.e. 1st form of quadriliteral with 2 root letters repeated twice) also connote repetition and duplication. For example, the word قَلْقَلَ means to be agitated; a state during which one moves around repeatedly. زَعْزَعَ means to convulse. صَلْصَلَ means to jingle, rattle, ring, or chink; all of these things are done repeatedly. Notice how the multiplicity in letters has indicated on the multiplicity in the action afforded by them.

Extra Letter Positioning

Not only does duplication play a role in the meaning, but its placement is also significant. Notice from above that with فَعَّلَ and فَعَّال , it is the middle letter that has been duplicated, whereas with اِفْعَلَّ and اِفْعَالَّ , it is the last letter.

In the case of the first two patterns, the connotation of repetition  is specific in the sense that the repetition happens quickly; no sooner does one instance of the action stop that the next one begins. Moreover, the action itself is choppy; it happens in small, quick instances. For example, تقطيع (chopping) (form II verbal noun) is something which is done quickly and one instance of the action is not entirely complete before the next starts. So notice how the speed and choppiness of the meaning is reflected in the fact that the duplication happens in the middle of the word; the word doesn’t end before the duplication is indicated.

Conversely, the duplication in اِفْعَلَّ and اِفْعَالَّ coming at the end indicates that the repetitions of the action are well spaced (relatively speaking) and that the action is not choppy but smooth. For example, اِحْمِرَار (blushing) (form IX verbal noun) is something that happens saliently and it is not choppy; ergo the connotation of intensity. And this has been indicated by the duplication happening at the end of the word; the action completes, then duplication happens.

Something similar happens in the case of صَرَّ and صَرْصَرَ  .a The former means to hum or buzz (as in a grasshopper) and the latter means to hum with pauses in between (e.g. to whip, as in the wings of an eagle). Notice how the compactness of the letters in صَرَّ indicates on the proximity of noises in a hum, and how the capaciousness of the letters in صَرْصَرَ indicates on the sparseness of the noises when whipping.

Thus far, our examples have been limited to base letter duplication. But the meanings afforded by extra letters as well as their positions is by no means limited to this. For example, consider the verb paradigm اِسْتَفْعَلَ (form X) . Notice that the extra letters that offer the “seeking” meaning (which is by far the most productive connotation of this paradigm) are brought before the base letters at the front of the word. This is because when you want something, you do not yet have it. First comes the seeking, and then comes the action afforded by the base letters. Hence the extra س and ت have accordingly been brought before the base letters.