4 July 2016

Arabic Verb Form V (5) تَفَعَّلَ tafa''ala tafa33ala

Meaning shades of Arabic Verb Form V

Also see posts on Other Arabic Verb Forms

This post is on The Meanings of Arabic Verb Form V تَفَعَّلَ . Usually one or multiple (more than one) of the following meaning shades are applicable in an Arabic Form V Verb and applicable meaning shades may differ from verb to verb.

Last edited on : 4-July-2016
and planned to be edited and improved further inshaALLAH!

1 (w) . Can be made from Form II فَعَّلَ by prefixing تَ before ف due to which it becomes تَفَعَّلَ .

2 (n) .  Can be made from the root by prefixing the augmentative letter ت before the ف of the root and doubling the ع of the root and giving it pattern تَفَعَّلَ .

3 . (n) The ت  appears to be basically indicating oneself. Like
making oneself to do the act indicated in the verb
or allowing the act to be done to or for oneself.   

4 (n) . The doubling of ع in Form V appears to be basically indicating that the act is done with
Intensity; Severity; 
Thoroughness; 
Emphasis; Energy; Strength;
Force; Vehemence; Vigor; Violence;
Extensiveness; Multiplication; Frequency; Repetition; in steps; in stages;
Firmness; Heaviness etc.
Some notes on this point:
 عَّ indicates عْعَ i.e. doubled ع
1 or multiple of the above mentioned traits can be present in the act depending on the context and verb.
Extensiveness can be Temporally Extensive (Act is done during a long time) and/or Numerically Extensive (Act done to or by a number of individuals) .

5 (w)(n) . Arabic Verb Form V in many cases has The Effective Signification in which
the act is done to a person or a state produced in him
whether by himself (he did himself, he became himself) or another .
تَعَلَّمَ (Form V) he became learned (by self studying or by getting lessons from a teacher or through experience) .

6 (w) . Arabic Verb Form V adds to the significations of Form II the reflexive force of ت . (to/for/by: oneself/himself etc.)

7 (w)(h) . In various cases, Form V is مُطَاوِع of Form II.
(a) . مُطَاوِع is a verb whose (grammatical) agent receives the effect of the action of the agent of another verb.
(w) . The مُطَاوِع expresses the state into which the object of the action denoted by the verb of which it is مُطَاوِع is brought by that action, as its effect or result.
كَسَّرْتُهُ فَتَكَسَّرَ I smashed it to pieces (Form II) , so it became smashed to pieces (Form V) .

8 (w) . The subject of Arabic Verb Form V is sometimes the direct object of the act (accusative) and sometimes the indirect object (dative) to which another direct object can be added.
تَقَطَّعَ It became cut or shred to pieces.
تَتَبَّعَهُ He turned himself into a pursuer of him. 

9 (h)(k) . Arabic Verb Form V is also used to denote 
repeated action in a leisurely manner (relaxed, gradual, without hurry). 
Doing the action step by step, stage by stage, resuming it again and again, till it is successfully completed. Now this can be of 2 types:
1. An action that can be done in 1 sitting (like drinking water sip by sip)
تَجَرَّعَ الْمَآءَ He swallowed the water sip by sip, gulp by gulp. 
2. Ac action that can be done in many days or even years (like learning the book stage by stage, step by step. )
تَعَلَّمَ الْكِتَابَ He learnt the book one topic after another, step by step, stage by stage, resuming its learning again and again.

10 (a)(n) . Arabic Verb Form V is also used to denote
undertaking or imposing upon oneself, or constraining, tasking or forcing oneself 
to do something
despite inconvenience, difficulty, trouble etc.
Using forced efforts to do something.
تَشَجَّعَ He behaved with forced courage. He tasked, constrained and forced himself to behave courageously. He undertook and imposed upon himself to behave courageously.

Some other meaning shades of Arabic Verb Form V include:

11 (k) .  To indicate the subject or فَاعِل putting to its required purpose or use the thing or quality indicated in the word from the same root as that of the Form V verb.
تَتَرَّسَ He shielded himself with a تُرْس shield.
تَخَتَّمَ He wore the خَاتَم signet ring.

12 (k) .  To indicate the subject or فَاعِل becoming possessed of (i.e. possessing) the meaning indicated by the root or thing or quality indicated in the word from the same root as that of the Form V verb.
تَمَوَّلَ He became possessed of مَال wealth.

13 (k) .  To indicate the subject or فَاعِل becoming like or becoming the meaning indicated by the root or thing or quality indicated in the word from the same root as that of the Form V verb.
becoming: تَجَدَّعَ It (an animal) became what is indicated by the root ج د ع i.e. with a cut off ear or nose etc. 
becoming like: تَبَحَّرَ He became like a بَحْر see. (May be used in indicating the abundance of some quality).

14 (k) .  To indicate the subject or فَاعِل making the thing indicated in the word from the same root as that of the Form V verb.
تَخَيَّمَ He made a خَيْمَة tent for himself.

15 (k)(h) .  To indicate the subject or فَاعِل acquiring or taking for oneself the meaning indicated by the root or thing or quality indicated in the word from the same root as that of the Form V verb.
تَدَيَّرَ الْمَكَانَ He took the place as a دَار abode or house for himself.  
تَحَرَّزَ He took for himself a حِرْز protected, fortified, strong place. He acquired protection for himself.

16 (k) .  To indicate the subject or فَاعِل making the object or مَفْعُول to become the meaning indicated by the root or thing or quality indicated in the word from the same root as that of the Form V verb.
تَوَسَّدَ الْحَجَرَ He made or used the stone as a وِسَادَة pillow for himself.

17 (k) .  To indicate the subject or فَاعِل taking the object or مَفْعُول in the thing indicated in the word from the same root as that of the Form V verb.
تَأَبَّطَهُ He took it beneath his إِبْط arm pit.

18 (k)(h) .  To indicate the subject or فَاعِل shunning or avoiding the meaning indicated by the root or thing or quality indicated in the word from the same root as that of the Form V verb.
تَأَثَّمَ He shunned and avoided اَلْإِثْم sin.

19 (h) .  Believing a thing or himself to be of the quality indicated in its root .
تَصَغَّرَهُ He believed it (a matter) to be صَغِير small.  

20 (k) . Introducing new meaning in form V which is not present in form I.
كَلِمَ (Form I) He injured.
تَكَلَّمَ (Form V) He spoke, talked.  

21 (k) . Form V verb may also come for a root in which no Form I verb has come.

22. Its verbal noun comes on pattern تَفَعُّل

23 (w) . Table 1


24 (q) . Table 2 


Important Note: 
Best examples for analyzing and verifying the level of applicability or non-applicability of above mentioned meaning shades and for finding additional meaning shades is by studying all occurrences of the Form in The Qur'an and for that you can check relevant examples for this Form in Pattern Wise Concordance PDF by visiting the post:
Pattern wise, Root wise & Letter wise Concordance of The Qur'an
& downloading the concordance documents freely. You can check relevant examples of most of the patterns used in the Qur'an by using concordance documents.

References: When multiple references mentioned for a point, it means material selected from all quoted references more from some and less from others and all quoted references do not necessarily agree on everything. Material is not exactly copied but based on the reference quoted and I have made additions, editions & changes where required :   

h = Howell Arabic Grammar English
w = Wright Arabic Grammar English
k = Aasaan Khaasiyyaat e abwaab Urdu
q = Qawaid Zaban e Qur'an Urdu
n = new indication by me.
a = Derived from other tools like arabic almanac or some other book. For this post (Lane's Lexicon)