24 December 2016

Arabic Particles: Learn Arabic Preposition بِ bi

Learn Arabic Preposition بِ bi meaning shades and usage.
Learn Arabic Preposition bi
See Arabic Particles Meanings series to learn Arabic particles and related words meanings.
Also see Arabic Particles Quick Study Tool.

Last edited on : 4 January 2017

1 (n,k) . The core meaning shade of Arabic preposition بِ bi appears to be
connection.
which is, on a deeper analysis, visible or traceable in almost all its meaning shades. 

2 (n,l,h,m) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is used to indicate
connection, adhesion, adjunction, association.

The usage of بِ bi can either be
real / proper / physical / perceptible by sense (e.g. physically connected with something)
tropical / ideal / conceptual / perceptible by intellect (e.g. conceptually connected like he did this in connection with that plan )

The usage of بِ bi can either be
Absolute e.g. he came with him.
Relative e.g. he passed by him (i.e. without physical contact but just relative to him, which we can also say in connection with or with reference to).

[ with , in , by, connected with , adhered to , in connection with , with reference to ]

بِهِ دَاۤءٍ with / in / connected with / adhering to him is a disease.
مَرَّ بِهِمْ he passed by / in connection with / with reference to them.
جَلَسَ بِهِ he sat with / by him.

3 (l,h,f) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
instrument or tool, using a thing as an aid or instrument. 

[ with , by means of ]

كَتَبَ بِٱلْقَلَمِ he wrote with the pen.
ضَرَبْتُ بِٱلسَّيْفِ I struck with the sword.

4 (l,h) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
accompaniment / concomitance.

[ with ]

اَلْفَرَسُ بِلِجَامِهِ وَ سَرْجِهِ the horse with its bridle and its saddle.

5 (p) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
accompanying state or accompanying environment.

[ with , with a state of , in a state of ]

هَبَطَ بِسَلَامٍ he descended with / with a state of / in a state of safety.

6 (l,h)(n) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
connection with a place, time or event ( place + time + happenings )

[ with , in , in connection with ]

وَلَقَدْ نَصَرَكُمُ اللّٰهُ بِبَدْرٍ and assuredly ALLAH already Helped you(pl) with Badr. (Translation attempt for words from The Qur'an 3:123)
This help was in connection with the event of Badr.
An event includes the place, the time, and other things that happen during it.
Note: In English also, it is said, he helped you with your project, he helped you with your assignment, he helped you with your homework.

جَلَسَ بِٱلْمَسْجِدِ he sat in the masjid. He sat connected with (a location inside) the masjid.
جَلَسَ فِى ٱلْمَسْجِدِ he sat in the masjid. He sat within the masjid (inside the boundary of the masjid).
In both these cases, he is in the masjid, but there is a subtle difference in terms of the angle with which we are looking at this situation or the angle we want to highlight while describing the fact that he is in the masjid.

7 (l,h,p,n) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
reason, in connection with which something is done. (Reason, because of which something is done) 

[ by , with ,  in connection with , because of ]

إِِنَّكُمْ ظَلَمْتُمْ أَنفُسَكُمْ بِٱتِّخَاذِكُمُ ٱلْعِجْلَ certainly you(pl) have wronged your(pl) selves by / with / in connection with / because of your(pl) adopting the calf. (Translation attempt for words from The Qur'an 2:54) 

8 (l,h,n) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
the giving or doing of something as a substitute / replacement / payment
with which something else is obtained. 
The giving of or doing of something in return for getting something else. 

[ with ] ( in exchange for , in replacement for )

هٰذَا بِذٰلِكَ this in replacement for that.
اِشْتَرَيْتُهُ بِأَلْفِ دِرْهَمٍ I acquired it with a 1000 dirhams.

9 (l,h,a,n) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to
render a verb transitive and is also used with some verbs to make idioms.

[ with , (modification of verb meaning e.g. come becomes bring, go away becomes take away) ]

ذَهَبَ he went away. (Form I)

أَذْهَبَهُ he caused him to go away. (Form IV. Impact of this case is that he caused his going away or initiated it.)

ذَهَبَ بِهِ he went away with him. (Form I with separable role of بِ and verb. Impact of this case is that he performed the act of going away with him or with his accompaniment.)

ذَهَبَ بِهِ he took him away. (Form I with combined role of بِ and verb. Impact of this case can be that he had an active role in taking him away but he did not himself go away with him, or it can be that he took him away holding him.)

ذَهَبَ بِهِ he did away with him (i.e. finished him). (Form I and بِ in the sense of idiom)
(Note: Do away with is also used as an idiom in English in the same sense)

10 (n) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
in connection with or with reference to something.

[ in connection with , with reference to ]

سَأَلَ بِهِ he asked in connection with / with reference to it.
vs
سَأَلَ عَنْهُ he asked of / regarding / about it.

11 (a,n) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
the target or recipient.

[ with ]

أَحْسَنَ بِكَ he was well with you.
vs
أَحْسَنَ إِلَيْكَ he was well towards you.

12 (h,l,s,n,m) . The بِ bi is also used as
the original particle of swearing 
The بِ bi is attached before (i.e. prefixed) to what / who is sworn by or promised by or to what / who is taken as witness / sign / evidence.  With بِ or by means of بِ we attach the swearing to the sworn by or we simply attach the بِ to the sworn by. In English also the word by plays a similar role.

Since بِ is the original particle of swearing, it has some unique features among particles of swearing :
i. The بِ bi can be prefixed to the pronoun also.
ii. The verbs of swearing e.g حَلَفَ or أَقْسَمَ etc. can be mentioned with بِ bi, instead of suppressing them.
iii. The بِ bi can be used for (conciliatary and propitiatory) adjuring or conjuring (of the one addressed) for inducing him to incline to that which is desired of him e.g. (I adjure you) by...

[ by ]

بِاللّٰهِ لَاَفْعَلَنَّ كَذَاۤ إِنْ شَاۤءَ اللّٰهُ by ALLAH, I will certainly do like this, inshaALLAH!

13 (w) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used with
غَيْر and لَا to indicate without
بِغَيْرِ with other than , without
بِلَا with no, without

14 (n) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
connection between 2 statements or between a word and a statement or connection between 2 words.
Many examples from this category are usually called corroborative or redundant بِ but a closer and deeper examination indicates that the overall meaning shade with and without it is different.

Related concepts to this point are :
i. A word on a verb form I active participle pattern or verb form I passive participle pattern is also sometimes used as a verbal noun.
ii. A word or statement coming after بِ bi can also be denoting a state.
iii. When a statement is connected with some one, it can imply is always etc. When a statement is connected in a negative sense, it can imply is never or is not at all, is in no way etc.
Someone + bi + Statement. This someone is connected with this statement. We can say the statement always holds true for him.
Negative + Someone + bi + Statement. This someone has no connection with this statement. We can say the statement never holds true for him or is in no way and not at all connected with him.

[ with , connected with , in connection with , with a state of , in a state of , (overall impact in translation of the set of words or statements connected via it) ]

كَسَرَ بِقَلْبِكَ he performed the act of breaking with your heart. Without بِ it will be, he broke your heart.

وَكَفَىٰ بِاللّٰهِ عَلِيمًا and suffices with ALLAH as Ever-Knower. (Translation attempt for selected words from The Qur'an 4:70) . Without بِ it may be translated as, and ALLAH suffices as Ever-Knower.

وَمَا رَبُّكَ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا يَعْمَلُونَ and your Maintaining-Lord is never unaware regarding what you(pl) are performing. And your Maintaining-Lord has no connection with being unaware regarding what you(pl) are performing. And your Maintaining-Lord is in no way / not at all unaware regarding what you(pl) are performing. (Translation attempts for selected words from The Qur'an 6:132) . Without بِ it may be translated as, and your Maintaining-Lord is not unaware regarding what you are performing.

بِأَييِّكُمُ الْمَفْتُونُ with which of you(pl) is the affliction OR with / in which of you(pl) is the state of being afflicted OR with which of you(pl) is the afflicted. (Various possible translation attempts for selected words from The Qur'an 68:6) Without بِ it may be translated as, Which of you(pl) is the afflicted.

خَرَجْتُ فَإِذَا بِٱلْأَسَدِ I went forth and all of a sudden was with the lion.

15 . To study this particle further in many other books read the pages for this particle in
Arabic Particles Tool . Also to see other posts in Arabic Particles Meanings series.

References: When multiple references mentioned for a point, it means material selected from all quoted references more from some and less from others and all quoted references do not necessarily agree on everything. Material is not exactly copied but based on the reference quoted and I have made additions, editions & changes where required :
w = Wright Arabic Grammar English
h = Howell Arabic Grammar English
l = Lane's Lexicon
n = New indication by me
a = Arabic Almanac books
p = Arabic Particles Tool books
m = Sharh of Miatu Amil .
f =  Fischer Arabic Grammar (its PDF can be downloaded from the link).
k = At Tahqeeq fi Kalimat il Qur'an il Kareem (its PDF can be downloaded from the link)
s = A Study of Qur'anic Oaths .

Arabic has been typed using the free and detailed Arabic keyboard, latest live version of which is available at:
Online Arabic Keyboard to Type Arabic Directly using English Keyboard with 7 Arabic Web Fonts .

3 December 2016

Arabic Particles: Learn Arabic Preposition عَلَىٰ ala

Learn Arabic Preposition عَلَىٰ ala meaning shades and usage.
Learn Arabic Preposition ala
See Arabic Particles Meanings series to learn Arabic particles and related words meanings.
Also see Arabic Particles Quick Study Tool.

Last edited on : 3 December 2016

1 (w,h)(n) . The Arabic preposition عَلَىٰ ala is used
i. In its original local sense to indicate higher elevation or superiority of position :
a. On top of , above or over its genitive (most common) .
b. On an elevation above its genitive.
ii. To indicate outer elevation over its genitive. This elevation can be over any of the sides also, not only the top. A paint on the wall is not literally on the top of the wall but on the side face of the wall. A guard on the door is not literally sitting on top of the door but over / upon /on / at its front or entrance i.e. at an elevation not with reference to the top of the door but an elevation with reference to the front or entrance of the door. The clothes on you are not literally on top of your head, but on you with respect to being on or over your body covering over the body from. Side elevation is used in English also, e.g. in architect drawings, the views from the front and sides are called elevations. This outer elevation is indicated in books like (h,l) differently as a case of superiority of position over something near the genitive.
iii. Another related meaning is in front of which is mentioned in some books as under. This is a case of elevation from the front of its genitive.

The usage of عَلَىٰ ala can either be: 
real / proper / physical / perceptible by sense (e.g. physically on the table)
tropical / ideal / conceptual / perceptible by intellect (e.g. debt due upon someone , ruler over masses)

Genitive of عَلَىٰ ala is the word governed by it in the genitive case. 

[ on , upon , over , at , in front of ]

هُوَ عَلَى ٱلسَّطْحِ he is on / upon the flat roof.
جَلَسَ عَلَى ٱلْمَاۤءِدَةِ he sat at the table. (This can be because a person sitting at a table rises above the level of it. Also this can be because of sitting over any of its sides at an elevation with reference to its side and not with reference to its top)
عَلَيْكَ ثِيَابَ قُطُنٍ on / upon / over you are clothes of cotton. (Again this is not literally on top like cotton clothes are not above your head literally but on or upon or over your body)
قَعَدَ عَلَىٰ بَابِ دَارِهِ he sat at the door of his house.
اَلْقَرْيَةُ عَلَى ٱثْنَىْ عَشَرَ مِيلًا مِنَ ٱلْفُسْطَاطِ The town is at 12 miles from al-Fustaat. (i.e. at a side elevation or distance of 12 miles from one of its sides)
قَرَأَ عَلَىٰۤ أَبِيهِ he recited it in front of his father. 
عَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ upon / on him is a dept.
سَلَامٌ عَلَيْكُمْ peace/safety on / upon you (all).
جَعَلَهُ أَمِيرًا عَلَى ٱلْعِرَاقِ he made him ruler over Iraq.

2 (w,n) . The Arabic preposition عَلَىٰ ala is also used to indicate
duty / responsibility / obligation / doable / dept / loan which is
due / deliverable / incumbent 
on / upon someone i.e. on the genitive of عَلَىٰ ala
Hence it is used after verbs signifying to prescribe, to decree, to make incumbent or unavoidable etc. 

[ on , upon ] ( due upon , incumbent upon )

عَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ on / upon him is a dept OR (due) upon / on him is a dept OR (translating non-literally) he owes a dept.
عَلَيْكَ أَنْ تَفْعَلَ هَٰذَا on / upon you is that you do this OR (incumbent) on / upon you is that you do this.
(Note: In English also on is used in a similar sense, e.g., this is on you means this is your responsibility)

3 (w) . The Arabic preposition عَلَىٰ ala is also used to indicate
the advantage, superiority, or distinction, which one person or thing has over another

[ over , above ]

اِخْتَارَهُ عَلَىٰ ذَٰلِكَ he preferred it over that.

4 (w) . The Arabic preposition عَلَىٰ ala is also sometimes used
in a hostile sense, in case of which it is usually translated as upon or against

[ upon , against , up against , on , at ]

خَرَجَ عَلَيْهِ he went out upon / against him.
عَتَبَ عَلَيهِ he was angry on / upon / at him.
أَغْرَى ٱلْكَلْبَ عَلَيْهِ he incited the dog upon / against / at him.

5 (w) . The Arabic preposition عَلَىٰ ala is also used to indicate
the ground or basis in terms of condition/state on which a person stands with respect to religion, trade, profession, health, fortune, mental/bodily gifts etc.

[ upon , on , based upon , (standing) upon / on ]

لَيْسَ عَلَى ٱلشَّيْءِ he is not upon / on / based upon anything. He is not (standing) upon anything i.e. he has nothing to stand on.

6 (w) . The Arabic preposition عَلَىٰ ala is also used to indicate
the ground or basis in the sense of terms / condition on which something is done.

[ on , on condition ]

عَلَىٰ هَٰذَا ٱلْشَّرْطِ on this condition.
ذَٰلِكَ عَلَىٰ أَن يَّفْعَلَ that is on condition that he does 

7 (w) . The Arabic preposition عَلَىٰ ala is also used to indicate
the ground or basis in terms of the cause / reason on which one does a thing.

[ on , on account of ]

لَاۤ أَسْأَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْرًا I do not ask you on / on account of it a fee...  ( Translation attempt for selected words from The Qur'an 6:90 ) 

8 (w) . The Arabic preposition عَلَىٰ ala is also used to indicate
the ground or basis in terms of the means via which something is done.

[ by means of , via ]

وَعَدَكَ عَلَيْهِ he promised you by means of him. 

9 (w,n,l) . The Arabic preposition عَلَىٰ ala is also used to indicate
the rule or standard upon or based on or according to which something is done. It indicates
conformity, accordance, adaptation or agreement.

[ on , upon , based on ] ( according to )

عَلَىٰ هَٰذِهِ ٱلطَّرِيقَةِ on / upon this manner of conduct
عَلَىٰ مَا رَأَيْتُ فِى ٱلْكُتُبِ based on what I have seen in the books.

10 (w) . The Arabic preposition عَلَىٰ ala is also used to indicate
the subject on / of / concerning which we speak as if our conversation was based on it. 

[ on , of , concerning ]

قَالَ عَلَىٰ ذَٰلِكَ he spoke on that.

11 (n) . The Arabic preposition عَلَىٰ ala is also used to indicate
the being on / of / concerning whom we speak as if our conversation was based on him or our conversation was based on something under his authority or something coming from him.

[ on , of , concerning ,  concerning that which is under the authority of , concerning that which proceeds from ]

أَمْ تَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللّٰهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ ...or do you say concerning / concerning that which is under the authority of ALLAH what you don't know. ( Translation attempt for selected words from The Qur'an 2:80 ) 

12 (w) . The Arabic preposition عَلَىٰ ala is also used to indicate
something happening in spite of / despite / notwithstanding another thing that might have prevented it.

[ in spite of , despite , notwithstanding ]

قَتَلَ أَسَدًا عَلَىٰ صِغَرِ سِنِّهِ he killed a lion notwithstanding / in spite of / despite smallness of its age. 

13 (f) . The Arabic preposition عَلَىٰ ala is also used to indicate
onto

[ onto ]

سَقَطَ عَلَى ٱلْأَرْضِ he fell onto the ground. 

14 (l) . The original letters in عَلَىٰ are ع ل و .

15 . To study this particle further in many other books read the pages for this particle in
Arabic Particles Tool . Also to see other posts in Arabic Particles Meanings series.

References: When multiple references mentioned for a point, it means material selected from all quoted references more from some and less from others and all quoted references do not necessarily agree on everything. Material is not exactly copied but based on the reference quoted and I have made additions, editions & changes where required :
w = Wright Arabic Grammar English
h = Howell Arabic Grammar English
l = Lane's Lexicon
n = New indication by me
a = Arabic Almanac books
p = Arabic Particles Tool books
m = Sharh of Miatu Amil .
f =  Fischer Arabic Grammar (this link is not a separate post on it , but its PDF can be downloaded from the page).

Arabic has been typed using the free and detailed Arabic keyboard, latest live version of which is available at:
Online Arabic Keyboard to Type Arabic Directly using English Keyboard with 7 Arabic Web Fonts .