24 December 2016

Arabic Particles: Learn Arabic Preposition بِ bi

Learn Arabic Preposition بِ bi meaning shades and usage.
Learn Arabic Preposition bi
See Arabic Particles Meanings series to learn Arabic particles and related words meanings.
Also see Arabic Particles Quick Study Tool.

Last edited on : 4 January 2017

1 (n,k) . The core meaning shade of Arabic preposition بِ bi appears to be
connection.
which is, on a deeper analysis, visible or traceable in almost all its meaning shades. 

2 (n,l,h,m) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is used to indicate
connection, adhesion, adjunction, association.

The usage of بِ bi can either be
real / proper / physical / perceptible by sense (e.g. physically connected with something)
tropical / ideal / conceptual / perceptible by intellect (e.g. conceptually connected like he did this in connection with that plan )

The usage of بِ bi can either be
Absolute e.g. he came with him.
Relative e.g. he passed by him (i.e. without physical contact but just relative to him, which we can also say in connection with or with reference to).

[ with , in , by, connected with , adhered to , in connection with , with reference to ]

بِهِ دَاۤءٍ with / in / connected with / adhering to him is a disease.
مَرَّ بِهِمْ he passed by / in connection with / with reference to them.
جَلَسَ بِهِ he sat with / by him.

3 (l,h,f) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
instrument or tool, using a thing as an aid or instrument. 

[ with , by means of ]

كَتَبَ بِٱلْقَلَمِ he wrote with the pen.
ضَرَبْتُ بِٱلسَّيْفِ I struck with the sword.

4 (l,h) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
accompaniment / concomitance.

[ with ]

اَلْفَرَسُ بِلِجَامِهِ وَ سَرْجِهِ the horse with its bridle and its saddle.

5 (p) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
accompanying state or accompanying environment.

[ with , with a state of , in a state of ]

هَبَطَ بِسَلَامٍ he descended with / with a state of / in a state of safety.

6 (l,h)(n) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
connection with a place, time or event ( place + time + happenings )

[ with , in , in connection with ]

وَلَقَدْ نَصَرَكُمُ اللّٰهُ بِبَدْرٍ and assuredly ALLAH already Helped you(pl) with Badr. (Translation attempt for words from The Qur'an 3:123)
This help was in connection with the event of Badr.
An event includes the place, the time, and other things that happen during it.
Note: In English also, it is said, he helped you with your project, he helped you with your assignment, he helped you with your homework.

جَلَسَ بِٱلْمَسْجِدِ he sat in the masjid. He sat connected with (a location inside) the masjid.
جَلَسَ فِى ٱلْمَسْجِدِ he sat in the masjid. He sat within the masjid (inside the boundary of the masjid).
In both these cases, he is in the masjid, but there is a subtle difference in terms of the angle with which we are looking at this situation or the angle we want to highlight while describing the fact that he is in the masjid.

7 (l,h,p,n) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
reason, in connection with which something is done. (Reason, because of which something is done) 

[ by , with ,  in connection with , because of ]

إِِنَّكُمْ ظَلَمْتُمْ أَنفُسَكُمْ بِٱتِّخَاذِكُمُ ٱلْعِجْلَ certainly you(pl) have wronged your(pl) selves by / with / in connection with / because of your(pl) adopting the calf. (Translation attempt for words from The Qur'an 2:54) 

8 (l,h,n) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
the giving or doing of something as a substitute / replacement / payment
with which something else is obtained. 
The giving of or doing of something in return for getting something else. 

[ with ] ( in exchange for , in replacement for )

هٰذَا بِذٰلِكَ this in replacement for that.
اِشْتَرَيْتُهُ بِأَلْفِ دِرْهَمٍ I acquired it with a 1000 dirhams.

9 (l,h,a,n) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to
render a verb transitive and is also used with some verbs to make idioms.

[ with , (modification of verb meaning e.g. come becomes bring, go away becomes take away) ]

ذَهَبَ he went away. (Form I)

أَذْهَبَهُ he caused him to go away. (Form IV. Impact of this case is that he caused his going away or initiated it.)

ذَهَبَ بِهِ he went away with him. (Form I with separable role of بِ and verb. Impact of this case is that he performed the act of going away with him or with his accompaniment.)

ذَهَبَ بِهِ he took him away. (Form I with combined role of بِ and verb. Impact of this case can be that he had an active role in taking him away but he did not himself go away with him, or it can be that he took him away holding him.)

ذَهَبَ بِهِ he did away with him (i.e. finished him). (Form I and بِ in the sense of idiom)
(Note: Do away with is also used as an idiom in English in the same sense)

10 (n) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
in connection with or with reference to something.

[ in connection with , with reference to ]

سَأَلَ بِهِ he asked in connection with / with reference to it.
vs
سَأَلَ عَنْهُ he asked of / regarding / about it.

11 (a,n) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
the target or recipient.

[ with ]

أَحْسَنَ بِكَ he was well with you.
vs
أَحْسَنَ إِلَيْكَ he was well towards you.

12 (h,l,s,n,m) . The بِ bi is also used as
the original particle of swearing 
The بِ bi is attached before (i.e. prefixed) to what / who is sworn by or promised by or to what / who is taken as witness / sign / evidence.  With بِ or by means of بِ we attach the swearing to the sworn by or we simply attach the بِ to the sworn by. In English also the word by plays a similar role.

Since بِ is the original particle of swearing, it has some unique features among particles of swearing :
i. The بِ bi can be prefixed to the pronoun also.
ii. The verbs of swearing e.g حَلَفَ or أَقْسَمَ etc. can be mentioned with بِ bi, instead of suppressing them.
iii. The بِ bi can be used for (conciliatary and propitiatory) adjuring or conjuring (of the one addressed) for inducing him to incline to that which is desired of him e.g. (I adjure you) by...

[ by ]

بِاللّٰهِ لَاَفْعَلَنَّ كَذَاۤ إِنْ شَاۤءَ اللّٰهُ by ALLAH, I will certainly do like this, inshaALLAH!

13 (w) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used with
غَيْر and لَا to indicate without
بِغَيْرِ with other than , without
بِلَا with no, without

14 (n) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
connection between 2 statements or between a word and a statement or connection between 2 words.
Many examples from this category are usually called corroborative or redundant بِ but a closer and deeper examination indicates that the overall meaning shade with and without it is different.

Related concepts to this point are :
i. A word on a verb form I active participle pattern or verb form I passive participle pattern is also sometimes used as a verbal noun.
ii. A word or statement coming after بِ bi can also be denoting a state.
iii. When a statement is connected with some one, it can imply is always etc. When a statement is connected in a negative sense, it can imply is never or is not at all, is in no way etc.
Someone + bi + Statement. This someone is connected with this statement. We can say the statement always holds true for him.
Negative + Someone + bi + Statement. This someone has no connection with this statement. We can say the statement never holds true for him or is in no way and not at all connected with him.

[ with , connected with , in connection with , with a state of , in a state of , (overall impact in translation of the set of words or statements connected via it) ]

كَسَرَ بِقَلْبِكَ he performed the act of breaking with your heart. Without بِ it will be, he broke your heart.

وَكَفَىٰ بِاللّٰهِ عَلِيمًا and suffices with ALLAH as Ever-Knower. (Translation attempt for selected words from The Qur'an 4:70) . Without بِ it may be translated as, and ALLAH suffices as Ever-Knower.

وَمَا رَبُّكَ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا يَعْمَلُونَ and your Maintaining-Lord is never unaware regarding what you(pl) are performing. And your Maintaining-Lord has no connection with being unaware regarding what you(pl) are performing. And your Maintaining-Lord is in no way / not at all unaware regarding what you(pl) are performing. (Translation attempts for selected words from The Qur'an 6:132) . Without بِ it may be translated as, and your Maintaining-Lord is not unaware regarding what you are performing.

بِأَييِّكُمُ الْمَفْتُونُ with which of you(pl) is the affliction OR with / in which of you(pl) is the state of being afflicted OR with which of you(pl) is the afflicted. (Various possible translation attempts for selected words from The Qur'an 68:6) Without بِ it may be translated as, Which of you(pl) is the afflicted.

خَرَجْتُ فَإِذَا بِٱلْأَسَدِ I went forth and all of a sudden was with the lion.

15 . To study this particle further in many other books read the pages for this particle in
Arabic Particles Tool . Also to see other posts in Arabic Particles Meanings series.

References: When multiple references mentioned for a point, it means material selected from all quoted references more from some and less from others and all quoted references do not necessarily agree on everything. Material is not exactly copied but based on the reference quoted and I have made additions, editions & changes where required :
w = Wright Arabic Grammar English
h = Howell Arabic Grammar English
l = Lane's Lexicon
n = New indication by me
a = Arabic Almanac books
p = Arabic Particles Tool books
m = Sharh of Miatu Amil .
f =  Fischer Arabic Grammar (its PDF can be downloaded from the link).
k = At Tahqeeq fi Kalimat il Qur'an il Kareem (its PDF can be downloaded from the link)
s = A Study of Qur'anic Oaths .

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