30 January 2017

Arabic Particles: Learn Arabic Preposition لِ li

Learn Arabic Preposition لِ li meaning shades and usage.
Learn Arabic Preposition Li

See Arabic Particles Meanings series to learn Arabic particles and related words meanings.
Also see Arabic Particles Quick Study Tool.

Last edited on : 30 January 2017
All the credit and all the praises and all the thanks for whatever is good and beneficial in this post and all the other posts, tools, and projects are just for ALLAH, and whatever shortcoming or mistake there is in any of these is due to me, an ordinary slave of ALLAH! and I seek ALLAH's forgiveness and pardon for any shortcomings and mistakes in any of these. 

1 (n) . The core meaning shade of Arabic preposition لِ li appears to be
to point out or specify the one to whom something is
owned by, belonging to, possessed by,
due to or for, owed to, right of, permitted for,
peculiar or specific to, 
for utilization or benefit or service of, for the advantage of,
possessed by,
related to,
etc.
or to point out the
reason, cause, purpose, outcome, result etc.
or to point out the thing or being in reference to whom
some act is done or something is said
for , to , of / regarding, by etc.
or we may also say
to specify its genitive mentioned after it with the relation to which what is mentioned before it is related to, e.g. to specify the possessor and relate it to the thing possessed by it, or to specify the owner and relate it to what is owned by it etc.

[ for , exclusively for , to , belongs to , of , by ]
Notes: Usage in the shade of by is usually derived from belonging to, an act or saying belonging to someone can also be referred to as by. Similarly, the of is usually the one used in book of Asim etc. 

2 (h,w,n) . The lam ل when used as preposition or genitive particle is written with kasrah i.e. as لِ li except in following cases where it is written with fathah i.e. as لَ la
i. With attached pronouns it is written لَ la except with with 1st person singular ى which it is written لِ li
لِى لَنَا لَكَ لَكِ لَكُمَا لَكُمْ لَكُنَّ لَهُ لَهَا لَهُمَا لَهُمْ لَهُنَّ
ii. With the person or group called to help using يَا and if there is more than 1 person or group called to help using a single يَا then only the 1st is written لَ la and remaining written لِ li.
يَا لَزَيْدٍ وَلِعَاصِمٍ O for Zaid and for Asim!
iii. With the wondered at using يَا e.g
يَا لَلْعَجَبِ O to / for the wonder!
In this post, the lam ل when used as a preposition, is referred to as the Arabic preposition لِ li, since except the above exceptions it is always written as لِ li.

3 (h,w,n) . The Arabic preposition لِ li is used to indicate
one or multiple of the following meaning shades
ownership,
making owner,
quasi-ownership,
making quasi-owner,
right or permission
deserving,
peculiarity / specific to,
utilization / benefit / service,
relation etc.
Usually books separate the shades like the above, as separate points but usually an overlap exists and more than 1 shade is applicable, so I have mentioned these together as 1 point, and explained some of these points separately also.  

[ for , exclusively for , to , belongs to ]

اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ All the thankful praises are exclusively for ALLAH. (Translation attempt for words from The Qur'an 1:2)
وَلِلّٰهِ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ and belongs to ALLAH what is in the heavens and what is in the earth. And is exclusively for ALLAH what is in the heavens and what is in the earth. (Translation attempt for words from The Qur'an 3:109)
وَهَبْتُ لِزَيْدٍ دِينَارًا I gave to Zaid a Dinar.
فَلَهُ ذٰلِكَ then for / to him is that. (i.e. he has a right or permission to / for that)

4 (w,n) . The Arabic preposition لِ li is used along with its noun or pronoun, to indicate
has, have, had, which literally can be translated as for so and so.

[ for , { has , have, had } (note: this is not the translation of لِ li alone and includes the meaning from the noun or pronoun also) ]

كَانَ لِلْمَلِكِ مِائَتَا عَبْدٍ there were for the king 200 slaves. The king had 200 slaves. 

5 (w,h) . The Arabic preposition لِ li is also used to indicate
the author of a book, poem, saying, work etc.

[ belongs to , of , by ]

هٰذَا ٱلْكِتَابُ لِعَاصِمٍ this book belongs to / of / by Asim.
كَمَا قِيلَ لِعَاصِمٍ like what was said by Asim. 

6 (w) . The Arabic preposition لِ li is also used to indicate
right or permission

[ for , to ]

فَلَهُ ذٰلِكَ then for / to him is that.  (i.e. he has a right or permission to / for that)

7 (w) . The Arabic preposition لِ li is also used to indicate
advantage or benefit etc as opposed to عَلَىٰ indicating harm. 

[ for , to ]

مَا لَهَا وَمَا عَلَيْهَا what is for it and what is upon / against it. 

8 (w) . The Arabic preposition لِ li is also used to indicate
creditor as opposed to عَلَىٰ indicating the debtor. 

[ for , to ]

لِى عَلَيْكَ أَلْفُ دِرْهَمٍ for / to me upon you are a 1000 dirhams. You owe me a 1000 dirhams.

9 (w) . The Arabic preposition لِ li is also used
with the pronominal suffix instead of using the noun or pronoun with the pronominal suffix directly. 

[ to , for , of ]

جَاۤءَ لِى أَخٌ a brother to / for me came or a brother of mine came, instead of جَاۤءَ أَخِى my brother came. The 1st method avoids making the noun definite implying a brother, while in 2nd method the noun is made definite, implying a specific brother in context.

10 (h,a) . The Arabic preposition لِ li is also used with the verb قَالَ and some related verbs to
deliver or communicate what is said to the one to whom something is said.

[ to , for ]

قَالَ لَكَ he said to you. He said for you (i.e. his saying was targeted for your listening).

11 (w) . The Arabic preposition لِ li is also used with the verb قَالَ to indicate
that in reference to or regarding which something is said.

[ of ] (regarding)

قَالَ لَكَ he said of you (i.e. his saying was regarding/about you).
يُقَالُ لَهُ حَنِيفٌ it is said of him Haneef . He is called Haneef. 

12 (w,n) . The Arabic preposition لِ li is also used to indicate
desire or wish or inclination or intent, and usually in such cases it is used with أَنْ and another preposition.

[ for , to , have , {overall translation for the statement with لِ and أَنْ and another preposition} ]

فَقُلْ هَل لَّكَ إِلَىٰۤ أَنْ تَزَكَّىٰ then say, is there for / to you inclination that you attain tazkiyah? (form V) (attain growth step by step towards your true potential by purifying yourself from the impurities and hurdles). Then say, do you have inclination that you attain tazkiyah? (attain growth step by step towards your true potential by purifying yourself from the impurities and hurdles) (Translation attempts for The Qur'an 79:18)
هَل لَّكَ فِى أَنْ تَفْعَلُ هٰذَا do you intend to do this? Is there for / to you in case that you do this? Is there for / to you in doing this?

13 (w) . The Arabic preposition لِ li is also used to indicate
the purpose, reason or cause
to achieve which anything is done or something is.

[ to , for ]

قَامَ لِنُصْرَتِهِ he stood up to aid him. He stood up for aiding him. 

14 (w,n) . The Arabic preposition لِ li is also used to indicate
the purpose, reason or cause
because of which anything is done or something is.

[ due to ] ( because of )

وَلِهٰذَا قِيلَ and due to this it was said.

15 (w,n) . The Arabic preposition لِ li is also used to indicate
the reason or cause
and is used together with مَا and the pronoun or noun to indicate
what is the reason for you, what has happened to you etc.

[ to , for , reason for , happened to ]

مَا لَكَ لَا تَفْعَلُ هَٰذَا what has happened to you, you don't do this. What is the reason for you, you don't do this.

16 (p,n) . The Arabic preposition لِ li is also used
with the imperfect مُضَارِع verb made مَنْصُوب accusative, due to mentioned or (not mentioned) implied أَنْ or mentioned كَيْ to indicate
the purpose, reason or cause
to achieve which the action is done

[ for , to , so (this translation of so is used when it is used with أَنْ or كَيْ and then لِ and one of these can be translated together as so that and sometimes أَنْ is implied but not mentioned ]

Another thing to keep in mind for this point and below mentioned 2 more points, is that, it is possible to translate أَنْ and مُضَارِع verb together in the sense of verbal noun.

وَأُمِرْتُ لِأَنْ أَكُونَ أَوَّلَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ and I was commanded so that I be the 1st of the Muslims. And I was commanded for being the 1st of the Muslims. And I was commanded to be the 1st of the Muslims. (Translation attempts for The Qur'an 39:12) 

17 (p,n) . The Arabic preposition لِ li is also used
with the imperfect مُضَارِع verb made مَنْصُوب accusative, due to mentioned or implied أَنْ to indicate
the effect of the action (not the intent for the action), or
the eventual outcome, end result, ultimate state or condition

[ for , to , so (this translation of so is used when it is used with أَنْ or كَيْ and then لِ and one of these can be translated together as so that and sometimes أَنْ is implied but not mentioned ]

فَٱلْتَقَطَهُ ۥۤ ءَالُ فِرْعَوْنَ لِيَكُونَ لَهُمْ عَدُوًّا وَحَزَنًا then picked him adherents of fir'aun so that he becomes for them an enemy and a grief. Then picked him adherents of fir'aun for becoming for them an enemy and a grief. Then picked him adherents of fir'aun to become for them an enemy and a grief. (Translation attempts for words from The Qur'an 28:8)

18 (p,a,h,n) . The Arabic preposition لِ li is also used
with the imperfect مُضَارِع verb made مَنْصُوب accusative, due to mentioned or implied أَنْ in addition to having مَا كَانَ or لَمْ يَكُنْ at the beginning, to indicate
corroboration of negation

[ for , to , such (this translation of such is used when it is used with أَنْ that and having مَا كَانَ or لَمْ يَكُنْ at the beginning then لِ and one of these can be translated together as such that and sometimes أَنْ is implied but not mentioned ]

وَمَا كَانَ ٱلْمُؤْمِنُونَ لِيَنْفِرُوا كَاۤفَّةً  nor are the believers such that they go out as an all-inclusive whole. Nor is it for the believers that they go out as an all-inclusive whole. Nor are the believers to go out as an all-inclusive whole. (Translation attempts for words from The Qur'an 9:122)

19 (n,a) . The Arabic preposition لِ li is also used with ءَامَنَ also written as اۤمَنَ and related verbs to indicate
believing someone.

[ of , by , his (for لِ and pronoun together ) , to , for , (in English usage and style, believe alone usually conveys this sense) ]

اۤمَنَ لَهُ he believed his (saying/promise etc.) or he believed (saying/promise etc.) of / by him or he believed to / for him or he believed him. (i.e. believed something of his e.g. his saying, his promise etc.)
vs
اۤمَنَ بِهِ he believed in him. (i.e. believed in connection with his being or existence)

20 (n) . The Arabic preposition لِ li is also used
in cases like falling to, going down to or in cases like of or by some part of body, e.g. side of forehead, side etc.
In English, there are 2 ways of saying the following statement: to your knees vs on your knees, and like in English, you won't say when someone mentions to your knees that he actually meant on your knees. Similarly, in English fell on the ground and fell to the ground are not the same and we can't say when someone says fell to the ground, that no, you meant fell on the ground. Similarly in Arabic, we can't say for someone who says لِ that no, he actually meant to say عَلَىٰ here.

[ to , for , by ]

وَتَلَّهُ لِلْجَبِينِ and he laid him down to / by the forehead's side. (Translation attempt for words from The Qur'an 37:103)
يَخِرُّونَ لِلْأَذْقَانِ سُجَّدًا they fall down to the chins in prostration. (Translation attempt for words from The Qur'an 17:107)
وَإِذَا مَسَّ ٱلْإِِنْسَانَ ٱلْضُّرُّ دَعَانَا لِجَنۢبِهِ أَوْ قَاعِدًا أَوْ قَائِمًا and when touches the human the harm, he calls Us to / by his side or sitting or standing (Translation attempt for words from The Qur'an 10:12)

21 (n,w,f) . The Arabic preposition لِ li is also used to indicate
time or time period or range/duration of time.

[ for , to , by ] (when , at (i.e in specifying or pointing to time or duration, at or when may also be used))

لِأَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى for a specified duration. (Focus on the duration from the start till the end).
vs
إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى till a specified duration. (Focus on the ending of the duration)
Both these may be referring to the same duration, but the way of saying it highlights 2 different angles of looking at this duration.

أَقِمِ ٱلصَّلَاةَ لِدُلُوكِ ٱلشَّمْسِ إِلَىٰ غَسَقِ ٱللَّيْلِ وَقُرْآنَ ٱلْفَجْرِ ۖ إِنَّ قُرْآنَ ٱلْفَجْرِ كَانَ مَشْهُودًا
establish the Salaat for / by / at the declining of the sun till the darkening of the night and the recitation of the dawn, indeed the recitation of the dawn is witnessed. (Translation attempt for The Qur'an 17:78) (The لِ appears to be pointing out the duration indicated in "the declining of the sun till the darkening of the night" i.e. during this time 4 obligatory Salaat are established. The Salaat of Dawn is referred to separately as recitation of the dawn i.e. recitation of The Qur'an in The Fajr Salaat.)

لِلَيْلَةٍ مَضَتْ مِنَ ٱلشَّهْرِ when a night passed from the month.

لِوَقْتِهِ at its time.

22 (w) . The Arabic preposition لِ li is also used
with the person or group called to help using يَا and if there is more than 1 person or group called to help using a single يَا then only the 1st is written لَ la and remaining written لِ li. Similarly لِ li is also used with the person or group against whom the help is called for.

[ to , for ]

يَا لَزَيْدٍ وَلِعَاصِمٍ O for Zaid and for Asim! (i.e. call for help Zaid and Asim)
يَا لَزَيْدٍ لِعَاصِمٍ O for Zaid to Asim! (i.e. call for help, Zaid to defend against Asim)

23 (w) . The Arabic preposition لِ li is also used
for calling someone using يَا to something, with both of which ل is used, in a similar way as in above point.

[ for , to ]

يَا لَلرِّجَالِ لِلْمَاۤءِ O for the men to the water! (i.e. call for the men, to access the water)

24 (w) . The Arabic preposition لِ li is also used
with the wondered at or surprised at using يَا e.g.

[ to , for ]

يَا لَلْعَجَبِ O to / for the wonder!

In cases like above 3, the لِ seems to point out the person or thing, in reference to which the exclamation is said, as being the origin or cause of it. 

25 (n) . Lets recap some uses of لِ again using a simple example 
لَهُ exclusively for him / for him / to him / belonging to him / his / of him / by him . 

26 . To study this particle further in many other books read the pages for this particle in
Arabic Particles Tool . Also to see other posts in Arabic Particles Meanings series.

References: When multiple references mentioned for a point, it means material selected from all quoted references more from some and less from others and all quoted references do not necessarily agree on everything. Material is not exactly copied but based on the reference quoted and I have made additions, editions & changes where required :
w = Wright Arabic Grammar English
h = Howell Arabic Grammar English
l = Lane's Lexicon
n = New indication by me
a = Arabic Almanac and Mawrid Reader books
p = Arabic Particles Tool books
m = Sharh of Miatu Amil .
f =  Fischer Arabic Grammar (its PDF can be downloaded from the link).

Arabic has been typed using Revive Arabic's detailed and comprehensive Arabic Keyboard .

24 December 2016

Arabic Particles: Learn Arabic Preposition بِ bi

Learn Arabic Preposition بِ bi meaning shades and usage.
Learn Arabic Preposition bi
See Arabic Particles Meanings series to learn Arabic particles and related words meanings.
Also see Arabic Particles Quick Study Tool.

Last edited on : 4 January 2017

1 (n,k) . The core meaning shade of Arabic preposition بِ bi appears to be
connection.
which is, on a deeper analysis, visible or traceable in almost all its meaning shades. 

2 (n,l,h,m) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is used to indicate
connection, adhesion, adjunction, association.

The usage of بِ bi can either be
real / proper / physical / perceptible by sense (e.g. physically connected with something)
tropical / ideal / conceptual / perceptible by intellect (e.g. conceptually connected like he did this in connection with that plan )

The usage of بِ bi can either be
Absolute e.g. he came with him.
Relative e.g. he passed by him (i.e. without physical contact but just relative to him, which we can also say in connection with or with reference to).

[ with , in , by, connected with , adhered to , in connection with , with reference to ]

بِهِ دَاۤءٍ with / in / connected with / adhering to him is a disease.
مَرَّ بِهِمْ he passed by / in connection with / with reference to them.
جَلَسَ بِهِ he sat with / by him.

3 (l,h,f) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
instrument or tool, using a thing as an aid or instrument. 

[ with , by means of ]

كَتَبَ بِٱلْقَلَمِ he wrote with the pen.
ضَرَبْتُ بِٱلسَّيْفِ I struck with the sword.

4 (l,h) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
accompaniment / concomitance.

[ with ]

اَلْفَرَسُ بِلِجَامِهِ وَ سَرْجِهِ the horse with its bridle and its saddle.

5 (p) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
accompanying state or accompanying environment.

[ with , with a state of , in a state of ]

هَبَطَ بِسَلَامٍ he descended with / with a state of / in a state of safety.

6 (l,h)(n) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
connection with a place, time or event ( place + time + happenings )

[ with , in , in connection with ]

وَلَقَدْ نَصَرَكُمُ اللّٰهُ بِبَدْرٍ and assuredly ALLAH already Helped you(pl) with Badr. (Translation attempt for words from The Qur'an 3:123)
This help was in connection with the event of Badr.
An event includes the place, the time, and other things that happen during it.
Note: In English also, it is said, he helped you with your project, he helped you with your assignment, he helped you with your homework.

جَلَسَ بِٱلْمَسْجِدِ he sat in the masjid. He sat connected with (a location inside) the masjid.
جَلَسَ فِى ٱلْمَسْجِدِ he sat in the masjid. He sat within the masjid (inside the boundary of the masjid).
In both these cases, he is in the masjid, but there is a subtle difference in terms of the angle with which we are looking at this situation or the angle we want to highlight while describing the fact that he is in the masjid.

7 (l,h,p,n) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
reason, in connection with which something is done. (Reason, because of which something is done) 

[ by , with ,  in connection with , because of ]

إِِنَّكُمْ ظَلَمْتُمْ أَنفُسَكُمْ بِٱتِّخَاذِكُمُ ٱلْعِجْلَ certainly you(pl) have wronged your(pl) selves by / with / in connection with / because of your(pl) adopting the calf. (Translation attempt for words from The Qur'an 2:54) 

8 (l,h,n) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
the giving or doing of something as a substitute / replacement / payment
with which something else is obtained. 
The giving of or doing of something in return for getting something else. 

[ with ] ( in exchange for , in replacement for )

هٰذَا بِذٰلِكَ this in replacement for that.
اِشْتَرَيْتُهُ بِأَلْفِ دِرْهَمٍ I acquired it with a 1000 dirhams.

9 (l,h,a,n) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to
render a verb transitive and is also used with some verbs to make idioms.

[ with , (modification of verb meaning e.g. come becomes bring, go away becomes take away) ]

ذَهَبَ he went away. (Form I)

أَذْهَبَهُ he caused him to go away. (Form IV. Impact of this case is that he caused his going away or initiated it.)

ذَهَبَ بِهِ he went away with him. (Form I with separable role of بِ and verb. Impact of this case is that he performed the act of going away with him or with his accompaniment.)

ذَهَبَ بِهِ he took him away. (Form I with combined role of بِ and verb. Impact of this case can be that he had an active role in taking him away but he did not himself go away with him, or it can be that he took him away holding him.)

ذَهَبَ بِهِ he did away with him (i.e. finished him). (Form I and بِ in the sense of idiom)
(Note: Do away with is also used as an idiom in English in the same sense)

10 (n) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
in connection with or with reference to something.

[ in connection with , with reference to ]

سَأَلَ بِهِ he asked in connection with / with reference to it.
vs
سَأَلَ عَنْهُ he asked of / regarding / about it.

11 (a,n) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
the target or recipient.

[ with ]

أَحْسَنَ بِكَ he was well with you.
vs
أَحْسَنَ إِلَيْكَ he was well towards you.

12 (h,l,s,n,m) . The بِ bi is also used as
the original particle of swearing 
The بِ bi is attached before (i.e. prefixed) to what / who is sworn by or promised by or to what / who is taken as witness / sign / evidence.  With بِ or by means of بِ we attach the swearing to the sworn by or we simply attach the بِ to the sworn by. In English also the word by plays a similar role.

Since بِ is the original particle of swearing, it has some unique features among particles of swearing :
i. The بِ bi can be prefixed to the pronoun also.
ii. The verbs of swearing e.g حَلَفَ or أَقْسَمَ etc. can be mentioned with بِ bi, instead of suppressing them.
iii. The بِ bi can be used for (conciliatary and propitiatory) adjuring or conjuring (of the one addressed) for inducing him to incline to that which is desired of him e.g. (I adjure you) by...

[ by ]

بِاللّٰهِ لَاَفْعَلَنَّ كَذَاۤ إِنْ شَاۤءَ اللّٰهُ by ALLAH, I will certainly do like this, inshaALLAH!

13 (w) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used with
غَيْر and لَا to indicate without
بِغَيْرِ with other than , without
بِلَا with no, without

14 (n) . The Arabic preposition بِ bi is also used to indicate
connection between 2 statements or between a word and a statement or connection between 2 words.
Many examples from this category are usually called corroborative or redundant بِ but a closer and deeper examination indicates that the overall meaning shade with and without it is different.

Related concepts to this point are :
i. A word on a verb form I active participle pattern or verb form I passive participle pattern is also sometimes used as a verbal noun.
ii. A word or statement coming after بِ bi can also be denoting a state.
iii. When a statement is connected with some one, it can imply is always etc. When a statement is connected in a negative sense, it can imply is never or is not at all, is in no way etc.
Someone + bi + Statement. This someone is connected with this statement. We can say the statement always holds true for him.
Negative + Someone + bi + Statement. This someone has no connection with this statement. We can say the statement never holds true for him or is in no way and not at all connected with him.

[ with , connected with , in connection with , with a state of , in a state of , (overall impact in translation of the set of words or statements connected via it) ]

كَسَرَ بِقَلْبِكَ he performed the act of breaking with your heart. Without بِ it will be, he broke your heart.

وَكَفَىٰ بِاللّٰهِ عَلِيمًا and suffices with ALLAH as Ever-Knower. (Translation attempt for selected words from The Qur'an 4:70) . Without بِ it may be translated as, and ALLAH suffices as Ever-Knower.

وَمَا رَبُّكَ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا يَعْمَلُونَ and your Maintaining-Lord is never unaware regarding what you(pl) are performing. And your Maintaining-Lord has no connection with being unaware regarding what you(pl) are performing. And your Maintaining-Lord is in no way / not at all unaware regarding what you(pl) are performing. (Translation attempts for selected words from The Qur'an 6:132) . Without بِ it may be translated as, and your Maintaining-Lord is not unaware regarding what you are performing.

بِأَييِّكُمُ الْمَفْتُونُ with which of you(pl) is the affliction OR with / in which of you(pl) is the state of being afflicted OR with which of you(pl) is the afflicted. (Various possible translation attempts for selected words from The Qur'an 68:6) Without بِ it may be translated as, Which of you(pl) is the afflicted.

خَرَجْتُ فَإِذَا بِٱلْأَسَدِ I went forth and all of a sudden was with the lion.

15 . To study this particle further in many other books read the pages for this particle in
Arabic Particles Tool . Also to see other posts in Arabic Particles Meanings series.

References: When multiple references mentioned for a point, it means material selected from all quoted references more from some and less from others and all quoted references do not necessarily agree on everything. Material is not exactly copied but based on the reference quoted and I have made additions, editions & changes where required :
w = Wright Arabic Grammar English
h = Howell Arabic Grammar English
l = Lane's Lexicon
n = New indication by me
a = Arabic Almanac books
p = Arabic Particles Tool books
m = Sharh of Miatu Amil .
f =  Fischer Arabic Grammar (its PDF can be downloaded from the link).
k = At Tahqeeq fi Kalimat il Qur'an il Kareem (its PDF can be downloaded from the link)
s = A Study of Qur'anic Oaths .

Arabic has been typed using Revive Arabic's detailed and comprehensive Arabic Keyboard .