13 May 2020

Kitab ul Jumal fin Nahw كتاب الجمل في النّحو or المحلى وجوه النّصب and Adwat ul I'rab - AP5 (Arabic Particles Tool 5)

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كتاب الجمل في النّحو
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Alternate edition with ascription to a different author for the same original source book mentioned above:
المحلى وجوه النّصب
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أدوات الإعراب
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6 May 2020

Arabic Particles: Learn Arabic Particle أَوْ Aw

Learn Arabic Particle أَوْ aw meaning shades and usage.
Learn Arabic Particle Aw
See Arabic Particles Meanings series to learn Arabic particles and related words' meanings.
Also see Arabic Particles Quick Study Tool.

Post 1st published on : 6th May 2020
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Post's relevant content last edited on :  6th May 2020.

All the credit and all the praises and all the thanks for whatever is good and beneficial in this post and all the other posts, tools, and projects are just for ALLAH, and whatever shortcoming or mistake there is in any of these is due to me, an ordinary slave of ALLAH! and I seek ALLAH's forgiveness and pardon for any shortcomings and mistakes in any of these.

[ Core Meaning shades ]
[ | Modified meaning shades due to context | ]
[ { Meaning shade combined with context } ]
[ (possible translation related to core meaning but not direct translation for the word) ]
/ = and or or.
: = previous statement continues to next statement.

0 (n,r,p,c). Introduction and Core Meaning shades

i. According to MI of Arabic Roots Linker tool, its core meaning is related to the core meaning shade of ا و ى . It may be the case, and in case it is so, the core meaning of ا و ى appears to be choosing some place to betake oneself to and : lodge / dwell oneself at, whether it is a new place to go to or an old place to which to return to.

ii. The core meaning shade of أوْ appears to be:
option
or
to indicate options: mentioned before and after أوْ and the options themselves may be nouns or verbs or statements or matters etc.

There are 4 main possibilities for the options indicated by أوْ and the options may be more than 2 but a single أوْ is usually used between 2 options only.

a. Both options are mutually exclusive, i.e. only 1 of the 2 options can be chosen or be applicable and the other remains unchosen or unapplicable e.g. the dear was killed by the tiger or the lion.

b. Both options are the available choices to the exclusion of other possibilities, and both can be applicable together e.g. he taught Maths or Physics (in the sense of the subjects tought by him were only Maths or Physics to the exclusion of all other subjects). Or the event was attended by 100000 people or those adding on. i.e the event was only witnessed by the 100000 or the ones adding on.

c. Both options refer to the same thing and thus both are applicable at the same time e.g. he fought "like a lion" or "bravely". i.e. multiple examples or similitudes are provided for better explanation and understanding or eloquence etc.

d. Both options refer to the options related to a group, i.e. some from the group chose 1st option and the others chose the 2nd option, or on some, the 1st option was applicable and on some, the 2nd option was applicable etc. e.g. the students played or ate during the break (i.e. some played and some ate).

[ or ]

a.1 (p,n). aw أَوْ is used to indicate mutually exclusive options, only 1 of which may be applicable or hold or be chosen.

[ or ]

i.e. mutually exclusive option 1, via أَوْ followed by mutually exclusive option 2.

وَلَئِنْ قُتِلْتُمْ فِى سَبِيلِ اللّٰهِ أَوْ مُتُّمْ
and definitely if you(plural) are killed in The Way of ALLAH or you(plural) died... (Translation attempt for Words from the Qur'an 3:157)

The relevant term used in books for this meaning shade is تخيير or selection of a mutually exclusive : choice / option from the available ones.

a.2 (p,n). aw أَوْ is used to indicate mutually exclusive options , only 1 of which may be applicable or hold. Regarding which option holds and which does not hold, the speaker himself is in doubt.

[ or ]

i.e. mutually exclusive option 1, via أَوْ followed by mutually exclusive option 2, regarding which the speaker himself is in doubt.

ۖ قَالَ لَبِثْتُ يَوْمًا أَوْ بَعْضَ يَوْمٍ
... He said, "I stayed a day or part of a day" ...(Translation attempt for Words from the Qur'an 2:259)

The relevant term used in books for this meaning shade is شك or doubt, i.e. the speaker himself is doubtful.

a.3 (p,n). aw أَوْ is used to indicate mutually exclusive options , only 1 of which may be applicable or hold. Regarding which option holds and which does not hold, the speaker himself knows but wants to keep the addressee in doubt.

[ or ]

i.e. mutually exclusive option 1, via أَوْ followed by mutually exclusive option 2, regarding which the speaker wants to keep the addressee in doubt.

No example for this use case could be found in The Qur'an.

قَامَ زَيْدٌ أَوْ عَاصِمٌ
Zaid or Asim stood. (Translation attempt for a hypothetical example)

The relevant term used in books for this meaning shade is إبهام or making ambiguous, i.e. making doubtful for the addressee.


b.4 (p,c,n). aw أَوْ is used to indicate allowed / possible / applicable : options for a matter in a context or angle to the exclusion of other possibilities or options outside these in this context or angle. Sometimes the options may be allowed / possible / applicable : together at the same time and sometimes the options may be allowed / possible / applicable : one at a time.

[ or ]

i.e. allowed / possible / applicable : option 1, via أَوْ followed by allowed / possible / applicable : option 2, whether applicable in parallel or 1 at a time.

وَأَرۡسَلۡنَـٰهُ إِلَىٰ مِا۟ئَةِ أَلۡفٍ أَوۡ یَزِیدُونَ
and We sent him to a 100,000 or those adding on. (Translation attempt for Words from the Qur'an 37:147)
i.e. both are applicable together at the same time i.e. the 100,000 or the ones adding on to these, to the exclusion of any one beyond these 2 categories. And ALLAH Knows the Exact Truth.

وَلَا تُطِعْ مِنْهُمْ ءَاثِمًا أَوْ كَفُورًا
and do not obey from them an aathim* or a kafoor* (Translation attempt for Words from The Qur'an 76:24)
i.e. the applicable options for the forbiddance i.e. "and do not obey from them" in the current context and statement of forbiddance are these 2 options only and in this case, both are applicable together, to the exclusion of other possible options. Some other order or same kind of forbiddance i.e. "and do not obey from them" may forbid other things also in a different statement or context, but for this statement in curent context, these are the only applicable options.

*aathim ءَاثِم translation attempt : Doer of : deeds / acts : that : prevent / slow down / delay / distract / make one fall short : from doing : due / proper / good / timely / rightful : deeds / acts etc.
Doer of deeds / acts : that become a hurdle / obstruction / deterent / diversion : from doing : due / proper / good / timely / rightful : deeds / acts etc.

*kafoor كَفُور on pattern فَعُول translation attempt : One who covers up ( thankfulness / belief / natural inclination to be receptive to : The Truth / The Qur'an and Islam) very much.

فَعُول translation attempt based on initial study (detailed study required to properly conclude the meaning shade of this pattern, but for this post, current level of research is presented as follows (one or more of the following meaning shades may be applicable depending on context (i.e. situation and the being having the trait ))):

Having fullness or muchness or abundance of the quality or trait indicated by the root or word from the same root.
Full or srong or mature in the quality or trait indicated by the root or word from the same root.
Doing the thing indicated by the root or word from the same root : to the full level or extent / to a high level or extent / very much .

The relevant term used in books for this meaning shade is إباحة or permitting or allowing, i.e. permitted or applicable or possible : choices / options : in which multiple may be chosen or be applicable or be possible together also.


c.5 (c,n). aw أَوْ is used to indicate options referring to the same thing or matter, both of which are applicable at the same time, since both are referring to the exact same thing or matter. i.e. multiple examples or similitudes are provided for better explanation and understanding or eloquence etc.

[ or ]

i.e. option 1 for the same thing or matter, via أَوْ followed by option 2 for the exact same thing or matter, as the 1st option.

ثُمَّ قَسَتْ قُلُوبُكُم مِّن بَعْدِ ذَٰلِكَ فَهِىَ كَٱلْحِجَارَةِ أَوْ أَشَدُّ قَسْوَةً
Further on, hardened your(plural) hearts, from after that, whereupon they were like the stones or with ingrained* severity in hardness. (Translation attempt for Words from The Qur'an 2:74)

Note that مِن بَعْدِ is pronounced مِنۢ بَعْدِ but since in many mobile internet browsers, it is not displayed properly, so I have written without the small م above the ن . When ن saakin ساكن is followed by ب then the ن is substituted by م but still written as ن with a small م over it.

*ingrained severity أَشَدُّ on pattern أَفْعَل and more research is required to conclude the meaning shade of أَفْعَل and translation attempt for its meaning shade based on initial study (detailed study required to properly conclude the meaning shade of this pattern, but for this post, current level of research is presented as follows):

Having the : quality / trait / feature : that is indicated by the root or word from the same root : ingrained / firmly fixed or established.

This : quality / trait / feature : is at its firmly fixed or established state at the time regarding which the reference is made to the thing or being in the statement and could have been firmly fixed or established since the beginning or be firmly fixed or established since some later time and this can continue for ever or till a finite time depending on the context and the being in whom this quality / trait / feature exists (i.e. for a mortal or perishable being, either till death or till the : quality / trait / feature is replaced or removed or ends).

Since this pattern is used for indicating the firmly fixed or established existence of a : quality / trait / feature : and the word alone does not usually deal with its intensity or level etc., so different things or beings can have the same firmly fixed or established : quality / trait / feature, but the level or intensity etc. can vary. So, this pattern in some contextual arrangements (along with other words and in specific grammatical arrangements) can also be used for comparison, e.g., as in the ahadith attributed to Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) for comparision of whiteness levels or intensity of white, e.g. see these https://sunnah.one/?s="أبيض+من" and https://sunnah.com/search/?q="whiter+than". Note: the more common opinion of many of today's teachers and scholars in this issue is to follow the Basran grammarians' argument that comparison cannot be used for colors, but this opinion contradicts the actual grammar and usage of some ahadith. So in this case, Kufan opinion of allowing comparison for colors also is obviously more logical and correct and can also explain the usage of whiter than and other classical sayings by others. Regardless of the authenticity of the quoted ahadith, the usage is obviously favoring the Kufan grammarians' view in this case. Now this does not mean every opinion of 1 group of grammarians is better than the other, this simply reminds us that every opinion has to be evaluated based on merit and evidences and we may even choose a different opinion if evidences are stronger for the new opinion.


d.6 (p,n). aw أَوْ is used to indicate applicable or chosen options for a group, i.e. the group as a whole has either option 1 or option 2 applicable on them or chosen by them. In other words, some from the group chose 1st option and the others chose the 2nd option, or on some, the 1st option was applicable and on some, the 2nd option was applicable. We can also say, that as a group, only these options are possible to the exclusion of other options in the current context or angle.

[ or ]

i.e. applicable or chosen opinion 1 within a group, via أَوْ followed by applicable or chosen opinion 2 within the same group.

وَقَالُواْ كُونُواۡ هُودًا أَوْ نَصَـٰرَىٰ
and they said "become Jews or Christians..." (Translation attempt for Words from The Qur'an 2:135)
They are referred to collectively and this collective group, in this context and angle of religion, either says "become Jews" or it says "become Christians". Or some members from this collective group say "become Jews" and some members from this collective group say "become Christians".
The relevant terms used in books for this meaning shade are تفصيل or making distinct or تقسيم or division or تبعيض or division into portions. (e.g. some members of a group did 1 thing and the others did another thing or A did this and B did that.)


To study this particle further in many other books read the related pages in
Arabic Particles Tool . Also to see other posts in Arabic Particles Meanings series.

References: When multiple references mentioned for a point, it means material selected from all quoted references more from some and less from others and all quoted references do not necessarily agree on everything. Material is not exactly copied but based on the reference quoted and I have made additions, editions & changes where required :
r = Qur'an Root Linker Tool books, specially TQ and then MI
w = Wright Arabic Grammar English
h = Howell Arabic Grammar English
l = Lane's Lexicon
n = New indication by me
a = Arabic Almanac and Mawrid Reader books
p = Arabic Particles Tool books, specially AQ and HR
p2 = Ma'ani un Nahw (AP Tool 2) .
m = Sharh of Miatu Amil .
f =  Fischer Arabic Grammar (its PDF can be downloaded from the link).
q = Qawaid Zaban e Qur'an Urdu .
s2 = The Subjunctive Mood in Arabic Grammmatical Thought by Arik Sadan .
c = Patterns Research by others section .

Arabic has been typed using the free and detailed Arabic keyboard, latest live version of which is available at:
Online Arabic Keyboard to Type Arabic Directly using English Keyboard with 7 Arabic Web Fonts .

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