14 April 2016

Arabic Verb Form X (10) اِسْتَفْعَلَ Istaf'ala Istaf3ala

Meaning shades of Arabic Verbal Form X
Also see posts on Other Arabic Verb Forms
This post is on The Meanings of Arabic Verb Form X اِسْتَفْعَلَ . Usually one or multiple (more than one) of the following meaning shades are applicable in a Form X verb and applicable meaning shades may differ from verb to verb.

Last edited on : 14-April-2016
and planned to be edited and improved further.

1 (n) .  Can be made from the root by prefixing the augmentative letters ست before the ف of root and giving it pattern اِسْتَفْعَلَ .

2 (w) . Can be made from Form I فَعَلَ by prefixing ست before ف due to which it becomes ستفَعَلَ and then the fathah of ف is thrown back upon ت and it becomes ستَفْعَلَ . Then to facilitate its pronunciation اِ is added before it and resulting pattern is اِسْتَفْعَلَ .

3 . (n) The س appears to be basically indicating seeking / requiring. The ت  appears to be basically indicating for oneself.

4 (n) . Form X Verb indicates:
The seeking or requiring
for oneself
the act or thing or quality
and then
asking,
demanding,
procuring,
taking,
doing,
getting done via someone
the act indicated in the Form I verb or the thing or quality indicated in the word from the same root as the Form X verb
and then
tasking oneself to put striving and efforts in this regard till what is sought or required is obtained or achieved. 

5 (w) . Form X often expresses the taking, procuring, seeking, asking for, demanding for oneself what is meant by the Form I verb.
غَفَرَ (Form I) he pardoned. 
اِسْتَغْفَرَ (Form X) he sought and asked for pardon for himself.
سَقَىٰ (Form I) he gave him a drink.  
اِسْتَسْقَىٰ (Form X) he procured a drink for himself (by asking for permission for it, or by making payment for it etc.)

6 (h) . Form X often denotes requiring the act, plainly or constructively. Examples :
Asking plainly
اِسْتَكْتَبْتُهُ (Form X) I asked him to write (something for me or something of my interest).
Constructively
اِسْتَخْرَجَ الْوَتَدَ (Form X) he extracted out the peg. (He sought and required to extract out the peg for for his own interest, and then tasked himself to this by putting efforts and striving in this regard till the peg was successfully extracted out.)

7 (k)(n)(q) . The subject or فَاعِل seeking, requiring, asking, demanding for himself from the object or مَفْعُول the act indicated in the Form I verb or thing or quality indicated in the word from the same root as the Form X verb. This can then be in the real/actual/proper sense حَقِيقِيّ or in the مَجَازِيّ figurative/tropical/metaphorical sense. The real/actual/proper sense can be indicated using words like asking, demanding: for himself. The figurative/tropical/metaphorical sense can be indicated using words like taking, extracting, doing, getting done via someone: for himself. The seeking or requiring is there in both these senses.
اِسْتَطْعَمْتُهُ (Form X) I sought for myself and asked him for طَعَام food . 
اِسْتَخْرَجْتُ الذَّهَبَ مِنَ الْمَعْدَنِ (Form X) I sought for myself and extracted out the gold from the mine. 

8 (t) . Self tasking or self-assigning oneself to make some one do or make oneself do.

9 (h)(q)(a) . The subject or فَاعِل becoming actually or actually like or metaphorically like the thing indicated in the word from the same root as the Form X verb.
اِسْتَحْجَرَ الطِّينُ (Form X) The clay became or became like حَجَر stone (in hardness). (Actual)
إِنَّ البِغَاثَ بِأَرْضِنَا تَسْتَنْسِرُ (Form X) An Arabic proverb, meaning, verily the بِغَاث ignoble/small bird, in our land becomes like the نَسْر vulture. Can be applied to the low person who becomes of high rank, e.g. the weak in our land becomes strong, or he who makes himself our neighbor becomes mighty, strong, or of high rank by our means, acquiring the might or strength of the vulture, after having being low or mean in condition. (Metaphorical)

10 (k)(a) . The subject or فَاعِل being or becoming requiring or seeking or worthy of the meaning indicated by the root, or thing or quality indicated in the word from the same root as that of the Form X verb.
اِسْتَرْقَعَ الثَّوْبُ (Form X) The garment became requiring or seeking or worthy of a رُقْعَة patch (a piece of cloth, or rag, with which a garment, or the like, is patched or pieced or repaired) .

11 (k)(h) . The subject or فَاعِل finding the object or مَفْعُول to be possessed of the meaning indicated by the root or thing or quality indicated in the word from the same root as that of the Form X verb.
اِسْتَسْمَنْتُهُ (Form X) I found him to be سَمِين fat.

12 (w)(a) . Form X often indicates that a person believes, thinks, estimates or declares that a certain thing possesses, in reference to himself or for his benefit, the quality expressed by the Form I verb.
اِسْتَحَلَّهُ (Form X) he thought, esteemed or deemed it to be lawful or allowed for himself.
اِسْتَوْجَبَهُ (Form X) he made it necessary for himself or he thought it was necessary for himself or he said/declared that it was necessary for himself.

13 (k)(h)(w) . The subject or فَاعِل in reference to himself or for his benefit: believing, assuming, thinking, estimating, or declaring the object or مَفْعُول to be possessed of the meaning indicated by the root or thing or quality indicated in the word from the same root as that of the Form X verb.
اِسْتَحْسَنَهُ (Form X) he assumed or thought or estimated him or it to be حَسَن good/beautiful.

14 (k) . The subject or فَاعِل in reference to himself or for his benefit: making the object or مَفْعُول to become the thing indicated in the word from the same root as that of the Form X verb.
اِسْتَوْطَنَ الْبَلَدَ (Form X) he made the city his abode/residence i.e وَطَن .

15 (q)(n) .  The subject or فَاعِل for his benefit or interest, seeking to be attributed with a quality by others,  pretending to be possessed of the meaning indicated by the root or thing or quality indicated in the word from the same root as that of the Form X verb. In Form X, this pretending is usually done for a likeable or praiseworthy quality.
اِسْتَجْرَأَ (Form X) he seeking for himself to be seen as possessor of جُرْأَة bravery, courage or daringness, pretended to be so.

16 (k)(n) .  The subject or فَاعِل having strength in the quality indicated by the root due to his seeking the quality for himself instead of just possessing the quality.

17 (w) . Form X converts the factitive signification of Form IV into the reflexive or middle.
أَعَدَّهُ (Form IV) he made him or caused him (someone else) to be ready, prepared, equipped.
اِسْتَعَدَّ (Form X) he made himself or caused himself to be ready, prepared, equipped.(Reflexive)
أَخْلَصَ (Form IV) he yielded up (something) wholly (to someone).
اِسْتَخْلَصَ (Form X) he claimed (something) wholly for himself, he took entire possession of it. (Middle)

18 (k) Form X is also in some cases quasi-passive مُطَاوِع of Form IV, 
(a) . مُطَاوِع is a verb whose (grammatical) agent receives the effect of the action of the agent another verb.
(w) . The مُطَاوِع expresses the state into which the object of the action denoted by the verb of which it is مُطَاوِع is brought by that action, as its effect or result.
أَقَمْتُهُ فَاسْتَقَامَ I made him stand upright so he held himself upright. 

19 (w) . In various verbs, Form X has apparently a neuter sense, but in such cases, a more minute examination shows that it was, at least originally, reflexive.
اِسْتَقَامَ (Form X) he held himself upright (reflexive). He stood upright (neuter).  

20 (w) . Form X is denominal/denominative in various verbs, in which case it unites the factitive and reflexive or middle senses.
اِسْتَخْلَفَ (Form X) he appointed himself as خَلِيفَة caliph. 

21 (k) . Introducing new meaning in form X which is not present in form I.

22 (k) . Form X verb can also come for a root in which no Form I verb has come.

23 (w) . Table 1

24 (q) . Table 2


Important Note: 
Best examples for analyzing and verifying the level of applicability or non-applicability of above mentioned meaning shades and for finding additional meaning shades is by studying all occurrences of the Form in The Qur'an and for that you can check relevant examples for this Form in Pattern Wise Concordance PDF by visiting the post:
Pattern wise, Root wise & Letter wise Concordance of The Qur'an
& downloading the concordance documents freely. You can check relevant examples of most of the patterns used in the Qur'an by using concordance documents.

References: When multiple references mentioned for a point, it means material selected from all quoted references more from some and less from others and all quoted references do not necessarily agree on everything. Material is not exactly copied but based on the reference quoted and I have made additions, editions & changes where required :   

h = Howell Arabic Grammar English
w = Wright Arabic Grammar English
t = Arabic notes on tripod site by Hani Deek
k = Aasaan Khaasiyyaat e abwaab Urdu
q = Qawaid Zaban e Qur'an Urdu
n = new indication by me.
a = Derived from other tools like arabic almanac or some other book.