4 November 2013

Arabic Roots, Patterns & Augmentative Letters 5 - م

The م as Augmentative Letter
The م can be judged to be augmentative in following cases:

1. When م is 1st letter of a word, and is followed by 3 or 4 root letters. This is the most common place for م as augmentative letter.There can be other augmentative letters in the word in addition to  م


مِفْعَل - مِرْفَق - ر ف ق
 مِفْعَال - مِثْقَال - ث ق ل
 مِفْعِيل - مِسْكِين - س ك ن
 مَفْعَل - مَعْشَر - ع ش ر
 مَفْعَلَة - مَرْحَمَة - ر ح م
 مَفْعِل - مَسْجِد - س ج د
 مَفْعُول - مَعْلُوم - ع ل م
 مُفَعِّل - مُصَدِّق - ص د ق
 مُفَعَّل - مُفَصَّل - ف ص ل
 مُفَاعِل - مُهَاجِر - ه ج ر
 مُفَاعَل - مُبَارَك - ب ر ك
 مُفْعِل - مُخْلِص - خ ل ص
 مُفْعَل - مُنْكَر - ن ك ر
 مُتَفَعِّل - مُتَفَرِّق - ف ر ق
 مُتَفَاعِل - مُتَشَابِه - ش ب ه
 مُنْفَعِل - مُنْقَلِب - ق ل ب
 مُفْتَعِل - مُخْتَلِف - خ ل ف
 مُفْتَعَل - مُحْتَضَر - ح ض ر
 مُفْعَلّ - مُصْفَرّ - ص ف ر
 مُسْتَفْعِل - مُسْتَكْبِر - ك ب ر
 مُسْتَفْعَل - مُسْتَخْلَف - خ ل ف
 مُفْعَالَّة - مُدْهَامَّة - د ه م
 مُفَعْفِع (مُفَعْلِل) - مُزَحْزِح - ز ح ز ح
 مُفَعْفَع (مُفَعْلَل) - مُذَبْذَب - ذ ب ذ ب
 مُفَنْعَلَة - مُقَنْطَرَة - ق ط ر
 مُفْعَئِلَّة - مُطْمَئِنَّة - ط م ن
 مُفَيْعِل - مُهَيْمِن - أ م ن


In last example above, the ه is substituted for أ . So in root أ is mentioned while in word ه is mentioned.The substitution issues will be discussed in a separate series inshaALLAH!

2. The م is augmentative in nouns only, not in verbs usually. But, see below case where the verb is derived from a noun which has an augmentative م . Such cases are very rare.
مَفْعَلَ - مَسْكَنَ - س ك ن
 تَمَفْعَلَ - تَمَسْكَنَ - س ك ن


3. The م also comes as augmentative letter in locations other than 1st letter location in a word, but such cases are few.
فُعْلُوم - حُلْقُوم - ح ل ق
 فِعْمِيل - قِطْمِير - ق ط ر
 فَمْعَلِيل - زَمْهَرِير - ز ه ر
 فَمْعَلِيل - قَمْطَرِير - ق ط ر
 فَعْمَل - سَرْمَد - س ر د
 فِعْلِمَة - شِرْذِمَة - ش ر
د
The ذ is substituted for د in the above example.

4. In reduplicated roots in which a 2 letter root is repeated to make a 4 letter root, the م is not augmentative.
فَعْفَع (فَعْلَل) - مَرْمَر - م ر م ر